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塔里木河流域人工与天然绿洲转化过程与适宜比例研究
郭宏伟
学位类型硕士
导师徐海量
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学硕士
关键词塔里木河流域 人工与天然绿洲 适宜规模 绿洲分布模式 the Tarim River Basin artificial and natural oasis suitable scale oasis distribution pattern
摘要In the Tarim River Basin, rapid development of social economy had lead to huge expansion of artificial oases and continuous shrinking of natural oases. It is of great scientific and practical significance to ensure the ecological safety and social prosperity and stability of oasis by realizing the coordinated and sustainable development of natural and artificial oases. According to the different Topographic and Geomorphic conditions and the main factors restricting oasis development, and combined with field investigation, this study divided the nine source stream and the main stream of the Tarim River Basin into three distribution patterns. Three typical river basins were chosen to analyze the artificial oasis expansion and natural oasis shrinking process in the last 20 years. Based on the principle of water balance, the quantitative relationship between artificial and natural oasis transformation and the disappearance and decline area of natural vegetation after 1 × 108 m3 water was consumed by artificial oasis. The suitable area proportion of the artificial and natural oasis of different oasis distribution patterns was put forward. This study provides theoretical support and scientific basis for the comprehensive management of the Tarim River Basin. The main conclusions are stated as follows:(1) Nine sources streams and main stream were divided into inland river desert area pattern, alluvial-proluvial fan pattern and main stream pattern. The Hotan River Basin, Keriya River Basin and Qarqan River Basin belong to inland river desert area pattern; the Weigan-Kuche River Basin, Dina River Basin, Kaidu-Kongque River Basin and Aksu River Basin belong to alluvial-proluvial fan pattern; the middle reach of the Tarim River, Yarkant River Basin and Kashgar River Basin belong to main stream pattern.(2)The total oasis areas of the representative river basins had no clear change, but the area proportion of artificial and natural oasis increased. The area proportions of artificial and natural oasis in the Weigan-Kuche River Basin were 3:7, 5:5 and 6:4 in 1990, 2000 and 2010 respectively. The area proportion of artificial and natural oasis in the Keriya River Basin was 3:7 in both 1990 and 2000, and in 2010 the proportion increased to 4:6. The area proportions of artificial and natural oasis in the Yarkant River Basin were 4:6, 5:5 and 6:4 in 1990, 2000 and 2010 respectively.(3) Cultivated land expansion not only lead to the gradual exsciccation of natural vegetation, but also lead to a larger area of natural vegetation decline. The area proportions of cultivated land expansion and declining and dying Populus euphratica are 1:3.6 and 1:32.7, respectively. (4) The appropriate artificial and natural oases area proportioning of inland river desert area pattern should be between 3:7 to 4:6. The appropriate artificial and natural oases area proportioning of alluvial-proluvial fan pattern should be between 4:6 to 5:5. The appropriate artificial and natural oases area proportioning of main stream pattern should be strictly controlled not more than 4:6.
其他摘要在塔里木河流域,社会经济的迅速发展导致人工绿洲急剧扩大,天然绿洲日益萎缩,实现天然绿洲和人工绿洲的协调、持续发展,对保障绿洲生态安全和经济社会的繁荣稳定具有重要的科学和现实意义。本研究从地形地貌的差异和限制绿洲发展的主要因素两方面将流域“九源一干”各个子流域绿洲分布归纳为3种分布模式,并选择3个典型小流域分析了其在近20年内人工绿洲扩张及天然绿洲萎缩过程;基于水量平衡原理计算了人工与天然绿洲相互转化的定量关系和人工绿洲多消耗1亿m3水天然植被消失和衰败的面积;提出不同模式下人工与天然绿洲面积适宜比例的范围,为塔里木河流域的综合治理提供理论支撑与科学依据。本研究得出以下结论:(1)“九源一干”绿洲可以划分为:冲洪积扇形模式、内陆河沙漠区模式和干流模式。和田河流域、克里雅河流域和车尔臣河流域属于冲洪积扇形模式,渭-库河流域、迪那河流域、开-孔河流域和阿克苏河流域属于内陆河沙漠区模式,塔里木河中游区、叶尔羌河流域和喀什噶尔河流域属于干流模式;(2)三种模式下典型流域绿洲总面积在近20年没有太大变化,人工与天然绿洲面积比例呈增加趋势。渭-库河流域人工与天然绿洲的比例在1990、2000、2010年分别为3:7、5:5和6:4;克里雅河流域1990和2000年人工与天然绿洲面积比例均为3:7,2010年这一比例增加到4:6;叶尔羌河流域人工与天然绿洲的比例在1990、2000、2010年分别为4:6、5:5和6:4;(3)耕地扩张除了致使天然植被逐渐枯死,还会导致更大面积的天然植被逐渐衰败,耕地扩张导致胡杨林处于逐渐枯死和逐渐衰败状态在面积上的比例关系分别为:1:3.64和1:32.73;(4)内陆河沙漠区模式人工与天然绿洲的适宜面积比例应介于3:7到4:6之间,冲洪积扇形模式人工与天然绿洲面积比例介于4:6到5:5之间,干流模式人工与天然绿洲适宜比例应严格控制不超过4:6。
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14873
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
郭宏伟. 塔里木河流域人工与天然绿洲转化过程与适宜比例研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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