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南疆三地州贫困人口的精准识别及影响机制
呼梦霞
学位类型硕士
导师张小雷
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学硕士
关键词精准识别 贫困影响机制 A-F 测度 精准脱贫路径 南疆三地州 accurate identification poverty impact mechanism A-F measure precise poverty alleviation path the three southern districts of Xinjiang
摘要The three southern districts of Xinjiang is one of the most severe poverty situation areas in 14 concentrated poverty areas, and analysesing the influence mechanism on the precise identification and causes of poverty of the poor is the core work of the precise poverty alleviation of poverty. In this paper, the minority Kepinaike in Kashgar Districts and Brazil Qiawage in Hotan Districts are chosen as a typical case of three prefectures poor village. It obtains 448 farmers basic family information as data support through surveys and questionnaire survey. And it optimizes the current system and verificates the new with exploring the advantages and disadvantages of the current system about the precise identification of poverty. At the same time, it concludes the main poverty in southern Xinjiang three prefectures poor households and its influencing factors using A-F mechanism of Multidimensional Poverty Measurement and classical statistics method. Finally, combined with the statistical analysis of farmers' willingness to increase income from poverty, it puts forward policy suggestions on the three southern states of poor households out of poverty in rural areas - precise path from the perspective of farmers -agriculture.The main results are as follows: (1) the current system in evaluation framework have the disadvantages which is that relates to content index is not comprehensive and the poor type has not been effective defect recognition.its optimization direction includes that: the refinement in the evaluation index of the original evaluation dimension, the added evaluation dimension in the third industry development status and the status quo of the ecological environment, and the appropriate adjustment in the weight. The optimized identification system has the following virtues: less capital and labor quality of poor households and the poverty types due to illness and school are effectively to get accurate recognition. While the farmers lower exchange ability and the weak modern production management organization are reflected as an important factor affecting poverty in the three southern districts. (2)cross factors leading to the multidimensional poverty has been ordinary phenomenon about the three prefectures poor households,in addition, the highest incidence of income poverty, lack of arable land, labor, capital, technology development costs and burden of disease have been the major poverty factor.(3) The poverty factors about the three prefectures hoseholds can be summarized as natural factors and family factors.local natural elements are the root causes of regional poverty,while lack of housing, the prevalence of disability, lack of labor skills and the level of education is low family factors aggravate the external causes of poverty.what’s more, backward production organization and industrial structure is the direct reason for the poverty.(4) The age of the poor households out of poverty development will focus on different, the export of labor services, the development of aquaculture and engaged in building decoration has become the first choice of the majority of poor households' income approach to development. To provide Chinese agricultural technology, training and policy needs of poor households is a free clinic common reaction. (5) Local farmers in three southern districts of Xinjiang out of poverty path could think deeply in three steps: accurate identification—accurate poverty alleviation—accurately out of poverty.
其他摘要南疆三地州是全国 14 个集中连片贫困区中贫困覆盖面较广、识别贫困人口难度较大的区域之一,对贫困人口的精准识别及致贫因素影响机制的分析是精准扶贫脱贫工作的关键。本文以少数民族聚居区喀什地区克皮乃克村及和田地区巴西恰瓦格村作为三地州贫困村的典型案例,通过走访调研及问卷调查获取 448 户农户基本家庭信息作为数据支撑,探讨现行精准识别贫困人口体系的优缺点并对此进行优化及验证分析,同时运用 A-F 多维贫困测度及经典统计等方法归纳分析南疆三地州贫困户的主要致贫因素及其影响机制。最后试图结合农户增收脱贫意愿调查的统计分析,从农村-农业-农户角度对南疆三地州贫困户精准脱贫路径进行思考提出政策建议。主要研究结果为:(1)现行的贫困人口识别体系由于内容指标设计不全面、贫困人口类型没有得到有效识别的缺陷,因此本文从细化原维度评价指标、增加第三产业发展状况和生态环境现状维度及适当调整权重三个方面进行了优化。优化后的识别体系使家庭资本较少、劳动力素质较差、因病因学致贫的贫困人口类型得到精准识别,同时也将农户对外交流能力低和现代生产经营组织薄弱等影响农户贫困的重要因素给予体现。(2)典型贫困村中单维度贫困发生率较高的因素为收入、耕地、劳动力、发展资金及技术培训。贫困因素的交叉导致贫困村多维贫困现象普遍,收入因素是造成贫困户多维贫困的主要影响因素,其次耕地、技术、劳动力、发展资金及疾病花销等因素对农户多维贫困程度影响较大,逐渐成为区域性致贫因素。(3)三地州农户的致贫因素可归纳为自然性因素和家庭性因素,自然和区位要素是区域性贫困的根本原因,缺少住房、患病残疾、缺乏劳动技能及受教育水平低等社会保障公共服务因素是加剧贫困的外部原因,生产组织落后和产业结构单一是农户致贫的直接原因。(4)各年龄阶段的贫困户脱贫发展意愿侧重不同,劳务输出和发展养殖成为其首要选择的增收发展意愿。农户对于发展种植业、发展养殖业、从事就近就业及外出务工的增收脱贫路径分别倾向于依靠掌握农业技术、更多的发展资金、建筑装修、建筑工和干农活。加强农业技术和汉语培训、提供免费义诊机会及提高教师教学水平是农户普遍反应的脱贫发展政策需求。(5)三地州脱贫路径应从精准识别-精准扶贫-精准脱贫三步思考。
学科领域人文地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14874
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
呼梦霞. 南疆三地州贫困人口的精准识别及影响机制[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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