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新疆典型冰川特征变化及其对关键气象因子的响应
黄晓然
学位类型硕士
导师包安明
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学硕士
关键词冰川变化 博格达峰地区 喀尔力克山地区 音苏盖提地区 友谊峰地区 气象因子响应 Glacier changes Bogda peak area Kelikelku mountain area sound Sugari area Friendship peak area meteorological factor response
摘要Glaciers are formed under the influence of climate change and are responsive to climate change. The glacier itself changes can also indirectly reflect the climate change. Glacier is the solid form of water body,storing rich fresh water resources. In the arid and semi-arid areas where water resources are scarce,glaciers are important sources of water resources. Glacier changes have an important impact on the ecological environment and people's production and living in arid areas. The study of glacier change is of great significance to the realization of sustainable development of arid and semi arid areas. With the development of remote sensing technology,it is one of the important means to study glaciers in the glacier areas where the climate is bad, the terrain is steep and the snowstorm is difficult to reach. Xinjiang glaciers are widely distributed,mainly concentrated in the Tianshan Mountains. Tianshan Mountains is one of the most mountainous mountains in the world,and the main distribution types of Tianshan glaciers are radially distributed with high mountain peaks. The Altai Mountains are the highest glaciers in China,and the glaciers in the region are small in size. Karakorum mountain mountains magnificent numerous peaks with large scale glaciers,. Snow line elevation is up to 5000m. The region is the world's low latitude mountain glacier development of the region.In order to be more comprehensive understanding,the response of Xinjiang glaciers to climate change is explored.In this paper,four typical glaciers are selected,which are the glaciers in the Friendship Peak area of the Altai Mountains,the glaciers in the Bogda peak area of the Tianshan Mountains and the glaciers in the Kelikinshan area.Based on Landsat TM,ETM + \ OLI remote sensing image data from 1990 to 2015,the glacier boundary was modified by snow cover index method (NDSI) and threshold method. The glacier catalog data were combined with visual interpretation method. The area of glacier in the area of the Bogda area, the area of glacier of the Kelikelku area,the Friendship Peak area,the sound Sugari area, the glacier slope to the ice and the glacier area center of gravity change was analysed. The climatic responses of typical glaciers in the eastern Tianshan Mountains over the past 20 years were studied by combining the temperature of long time series and the key meteorological factors of precipitation. And the characteristics of glacier changes in four study areas were combined with the changes of the key meteorological factors and the characteristics of the terrain and the glaciers themselves.Through the preliminary study, we get some conclusions: (1)The glaciers in the four study areas have experienced the phenomenon of accelerated retreat and the recent fluctuation in the 1990s. From the area of retreat rate,the friendship rate of the largest area of the retreat rate,followed by the Bogda peak area,and then for the sound Sugar area,and finally for the region of the Kelikelku area. (2)The glacier area in the four study areas shows the phenomenon of migration to the origin,which shows that the study area in each quadrant are showing a trend of retreat,in addition to Friendship peak area,the other three study area 4 quadrant area The center of gravity changes are relatively large. (3)From the perspective of the slope map,the glacier area on the southern slope of the Kelikelku mountain area is larger than the northern slope,and the glacier area on the north slope is larger than the glacier area in the southern slope. Glacier area retreat rate northwest slope up slightly increased,the other areas in all directions are showing a retreat trend in addition to the friendship peak area in the. Both the Bogda peak area and the Kelikelku mountain area have the fastest retraction rate in the northwest slope and the sound Sugari area and the Friendship peak area are the fastest in the east slope. (4)According to the analysis of raster meteorological data,the response sensitivity of the key meteorological factors in the Friendship peak area is greater than that in the Bogda area,which is larger than that of the area of the Kelikelku mountain area and the friendship area.The increase in precipitation in the Bogda peak area has little effect on the retreat of the glaciers,and the precipitation in the Kelikelku mountain area has a certain inhibitory effect on the retreat of the glacier area. (5)On the scale of the year,the main reason for the Bogda peak area,the Kelikelku mountain area,the sound Sugari area and the Friendship peak area are due to the increase of the temperature in the wet and dry season and the precipitation in the wet and dry season are not making the overall retreat of the glaciers slowed down.
其他摘要冰川是在气候变化作用下形成的,对气候变化反应灵敏。因此冰川本身的变化也可以间接反映气候的变化。冰川是水体的固体存在形态,存储着丰富的淡水资源。在水资源缺乏的干旱半干旱区,冰川是重要的水资源来源,冰川变化对干旱区半干旱区的生态环境及人们的生产、生活产生重要的影响。冰川变化研究的开展对干旱半干旱区可持续发展的实现具有重要意义。随着遥感技术的发展,对于人类难以到达的气候条件恶劣,地形险峻,雪灾频发的冰川地区进行遥感观测研究,成为了冰川学的重要手段之一。新疆冰川分布广泛,主要集中于天山山脉。天山山脉是世界上山地冰川分布最多的山系之一,且天山冰川的主要分布类型为以高大山峰为中心呈辐射状分布。阿尔泰山脉分布的冰川是我国纬度最高的冰川,该地区的冰川具有数量少,规模小的特点。喀喇昆仑山山脉宏伟,山峰众多且雪线海拔高达 5000m 左右,冰川规模大,该地区是世界上中、低纬度山岳冰川最发育的地区。为了更加全面地探讨冰川对关键气象因子的响应特征。本文选取了具有代表性的四条冰川,分别为位于阿尔泰山的友谊峰地区冰川、天山的博格达峰地区冰川及喀尔力克山地区冰川和喀喇昆仑山的音苏盖提地区冰川作为研究区。基于 1990-2015 年Landsat TM、ETM+\OLI 遥感影像数据,利用雪盖指数法(NDSI)和阈值法提取冰川边界,并参考冰川编目数据结合目视解译法对已获取的冰川边界进行修正,分析了博格达峰地区、喀尔力克山地区、友谊峰地区、音苏盖提地区的冰川面积变化、冰川坡向变化及冰川面积重心变化。结合长时间序列的温度、降水关键气象因子数据,对近 20 年天山东段典型冰川的气候响应进行了初步探讨。本研究综合比较四个研究区冰川特征变化情况,并依据关键气象因子、地形及冰川变化特征等因素的相关关系,对冰川变化特征可能存在的影响因素进行了探讨。通过初步研究得到以下几方面的结论:(1)四个研究区内的冰川在 90 年代均出现了加速退缩、近期变化波动较小的现象。研究发现,友谊峰地区冰川退缩速率最大,其后依次为博格达峰地区、音苏盖提地区和喀尔力克山地区。(2)在四个研究区的冰川面积变化均表现出向原点偏移的迹象,说明研究区在各个方向均呈现退缩趋势。而且,除友谊峰地区外,其他三个研究区 4 个象限的面积重心变化均比较大。(3)坡向分析表明,喀尔力克山地区南坡的冰川面积大于北坡的冰川面积,而其他三个研究区的北坡冰川面积均大于南坡冰川面积。在退缩速率方面,冰川面积退缩速率除友谊峰地区在西北坡向上略有增加外,其他地区冰川在各方向上均呈现出不同程度的退缩趋势。其中,博格达峰地区与喀尔力克山地区在西北坡方向的冰川退缩速率最大,而音苏盖提地区与友谊峰地区最大冰川退缩速率出现在东坡方向。(4)根据栅格气象资料分析近四五十年,在长时间序列上对关键气象因子分析,气象因子敏感度分析结果表明冰川面积变化对关键气象因子的敏感度从大到小依次为友谊峰地区、博格达峰地区、音苏盖提地区和喀尔力克山地区。其中,喀尔力克山地区的降水量增加对冰川面积的退缩起到一定程度的抑制作用,而友谊峰地区和博格达峰地区冰川变化对降水量的增加并不敏感。(5)在年内尺度上,博格达峰地区、喀尔力克山地区、音苏盖提地区和友谊峰地区冰川面积退缩的主要原因是干湿两季温度升高。且干湿两季降水量的增多,并没有使得冰川整体的退缩有所减缓。
学科领域地图学与地理信息系统
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14875
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
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黄晓然. 新疆典型冰川特征变化及其对关键气象因子的响应[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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