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塔里木盆地南缘不同土壤盐分生境下骆驼刺适应特性研究
罗瀚林
学位类型硕士
导师曾凡江
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业农学硕士
关键词疏叶骆驼刺 极端干旱区 盐分生境 叶片性状 根系分株 Alhagi sparsifolia Shap. extremely arid areas saline habitats leaf trait root ramet
摘要Soil salinization is one of the top ten threats to soil function. It seriously restricts the development of agriculture and animal husbandry. Tarim Basin is favorable for the occurrence of soil salinization due to its unique natural environment. The unreasonable land use and the construction of water conservancy projects have further aggravated the expansion and spread of saline land, which caused the serious damage to the natural vegetation near the oasis. Alhagi sparsifolia Shap. is a key species grown on the southern margin of the Tarim Basin. It plays an important role in maintaining ecological security and promoting economic development in this region. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the adaptive characteristics of A. sparsifolia.In this study, the dominant plant A. sparsifolia was studied under different salt conditions in the southern margin of Tarim basin. Through the combination of field observation and experimental analysis, we systematically studied the growth distribution, leaf traits, root ramet, ion distribution characteristics of A. sparsifolia under different salt conditions. In order to reveal the ecological adaptation of A. sparsifolia to different salinity environment, and provide scientific basis for regional degradation vegetation restoration and saline land resource management. Mainly results are as follows:(1) Growth distribution characteristics: There was a significant correlation between total salt of soil, soil organic carbon content, soil total nitrogen content, mineralization degree of groundwater and the growth distribution characteristics of A. sparsifolia; the correlation of groundwater depth with growth distribution characteristics was less significant while other indicators had no significant correlation with the plant’s growth distribution characteristics. Synthesis analysis showed that mineralization degree of groundwater, groundwater depth, total salt of soil are main factors influencing growth distribution characteristics of A. sparsifolia. The increase of groundwater mineralization degree, soil total salt and groundwater table go against the growth of A. sparsifolia in saline habitat. (2) Leaf traits characteristics: With the increase of soil salinity, the area of A. sparsifolia leaf was "big - small - big" trend; Leaf thickness was "thin - thick - thin" trend; The specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content and leaf tissue density changed little; The change of total carbon content in the leaves of A. sparsifolia was less with the change of soil salinity, and the change of total nitrogen content and total phosphorus content was not obvious.(3) Root ramet characteristics: With the increase of soil salinity, the formation of A. sparsifolia seeds was restricted, and the way of reproduction by sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction coexist into only asexual reproduction, resulting in a reduction in the regeneration of the A. sparsifolia; The interval between the ramets increased gradually, and the depth of the ramets increased gradually, leading to the decrease of the number and ability of new plants; When the total salt content of soil is too high, there will be no new ramets, A. sparsifolia do not have a complete history of life, it can not carry out the natural breeding population. (4) Ion distribution characteristics: When grown on a light saline soil, Na+ distribution in different organs of A. sparsifolia followed the order of stem≈thorn>leaf>root; when grown on a severe saline soil, Na+ distribution followed leaf>stem≈thorn>root. The distribution of Ca2+ and Mg2+ followed leaf>thorn>stem>root. with the increase of soil salt level, Na+ content in different organs of A. sparsifolia increased, while K+ content in leave decreased; meanwhile the increasing soil salt level significantly decreased the K+/Na+ ratio in both root and leave, as well as the Ca2+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ ratios in all organs. The selective transportation coefficients for Ca2+-Na+(SCa,Na)and Mg2+-Na+ (SMg,Na) followed order of stem-leaf> stem-thorn> root-stem.
其他摘要土壤盐渍化是土壤功能面临的十大威胁之一,严重制约农牧业的发展。塔里木盆地由于独特的自然环境条件而有利于土壤盐渍化的发生,水利工程的建设和人为不合理的土地利用,更使得盐碱地的扩展与蔓延加剧,造成绿洲近外围的自然植被遭受严重的破坏。骆驼刺(Alhagi sparsifolia Shap.)是生长于塔里木盆地南缘的一种关键物种,其对于维护该地区生态安全,促进经济发展具有重要的作用。因此,研究盐分生境骆驼刺的适应特性具有重要意义。本研究以塔里木盆地南缘不同盐生条件下的优势植物骆驼刺为研究对象,通过野外观测研究与实验测定分析相结合的方法,对骆驼刺在自然环境不同盐分条件下的生长分布特征、叶片性状特征、根系分株特征、离子分布与运输特征等进行系统研究,以期揭示骆驼刺对不同盐分环境的生态适应规律,为区域退化植被修复和盐碱地资源管理提供科学依据。主要研究结果如下:(1)生长分布特征:土壤总盐、土壤有机碳含量、土壤全氮含量、地下水矿化度与骆驼刺生长分布特征呈极显著的相关性(P<0.01),潜水埋深与骆驼刺生长分布特征呈显著的相关性(P<0.05),其他环境因子与骆驼刺生长分布特征的相关性均不显著(P>0.05)。综合分析环境因子认为地下水矿化度、潜水埋深、土壤总盐是影响骆驼刺生长分布特征的主要因素。地下水矿化度、土壤总盐的增加和潜水埋深的减少不利于骆驼刺的生长。(2)叶片性状特征:随着土壤含盐量增加,骆驼刺叶片面积呈“小-大-小”的变化趋势;叶片厚度呈“厚-薄-厚”的变化趋势;比叶面积、叶干物质含量、叶组织密度变化较小;骆驼刺叶片全碳含量随土壤含盐量的改变变化较小,全氮含量、全磷含量变化规律不明显。(3)根系分株特征:随着土壤含盐量增加,骆驼刺种子形成受到限制,更新方式由有性繁殖和无性繁殖共存转变为仅为无性繁殖,导致骆驼刺更新方式减少;骆驼刺分株间隔逐渐增大,分株发生深度逐渐加深,导致骆驼刺产生新植株的数量和能力下降;当土壤含盐量过高时,骆驼刺则不会有新植株产生,不具有完整的生活史,其无法进行自然繁殖形成种群。(4)离子分布特征:在土壤含盐量较轻时,Na+在骆驼刺体内的分布规律为茎≈刺>叶>根,而在土壤含盐量较重时,Na+的分布规律则为叶>茎≈刺>根;Ca2+和Mg2+在骆驼刺体内的分布规律为叶>刺>茎>根。随着土壤含盐量增加,骆驼刺体内各器官Na+含量均增大,而叶片中K+含量却呈下降趋势;叶和根中K+/Na+值明显降低,各器官中Mg2+/Na+、Ca2+/Na+值均降低。盐分生境下,骆驼刺体内Ca2+和Mg2+选择性运输系数均为茎-叶>茎-刺>根-茎。
学科领域水土保持与荒漠化防治
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14888
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
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罗瀚林. 塔里木盆地南缘不同土壤盐分生境下骆驼刺适应特性研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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