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不同灌溉模式下绿洲土壤盐分再分布研究
罗雪园
学位类型硕士
导师周宏飞
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学硕士
关键词膜下滴灌 沟灌 畦灌 土壤含盐量 脱盐率 淋洗效率 Drip irrigation Furrow irrigation Border irrigation Soil salinity Leaching Leaching efficiency
摘要It is an effective measure to manage saline-alkali land and prevent and control theoasis soil secondary salinization through the way of irrigation. Facing serious watershortage in arid areas, this is the basis of determine the salt leaching system ofwater-saving irrigation through further study of soil salt movement characteristicsunder different irrigation mode, which is of great significance for the sustainabledevelopment of oasis agriculture. This study’s operation is in Fukang DesertEcosystem Observation Experimental Station, Chinese academy of sciences, we usethe method of combining field test and laboratory experiments, and discuss thevariation characteristics of spatial and temporal of soil salinity under differentirrigation modes and different irrigation quota combination, and identify theimprovement effects on saline soil and salt leaching efficiency under differentirrigation quota of different irrigation patterns. In this paper, the main conclusions areas follows.(1) Under different irrigation patterns, when the irrigation quota is set at 2500-7000 m3/ hm2, the soil salinity all show a trend of desalination from 0cm to 80cm in the growthperiod, but it shows a trend of increasing in less than 80 cm, this indicates that the soilsalinity changes from surface poly to bottom poly under water leaching. During theirrigation period, the change of soil salinity in the surface layer is more severe than thatin the bottom layer.(2) Under mulch drip irrigation, the greater the amount of irrigation, the higher thedesalination rate, the better the effect of salt leaching. In vertical direction, the greaterthe amount of irrigation, soil salinity leaching deeper, the leaching depth reaches 1.2meters when the irrigation quota is 7000m3/hm2,while the leaching depth reaches onemeters and more than one meter of soil layers when the irrigation quota is 4000m3/hm2and 3000m3/hm2; In horizontal direction, the greater the amount of irrigation, thegreater the difference that soil salinity between film and soil film in different soil layers, when the irrigation quota is 7000m3/hm2, the difference between the membraneand the membrane of different soil salinity is higher than 0.03g/kg.(3)Under the condition of furrow irrigation and border irrigation, the higher salinitybackground value, the better the soil salt leaching. The soil salinity of No. 5 plots forexperimental field is highest than other testing field, its average soil salinity is 0.82g/kg and far more than other plots, the desalination effect is also the best, there is adesalination phenomenon within 1.4 m even deeper soil layer when the irrigation quotais 6000m3/hm2.(4)From looking at the rate of desalination, under the same irrigation quota, thedesalination rate of drip irrigation is lower than the desalination rate of borderirrigation and furrow irrigation, among the desalination rate of drip irrigation under themembrane is below 35%, while the desalination rate of furrow and border irrigationrate are more than 20%; From looking at the leaching efficiency, the same amount ofwater to salt leaching of film drip irrigation is higher than that of border irrigation andfurrow irrigation. In general, the greater the amount of the irrigation water, the betterthe leaching effect of soil salt.
其他摘要灌水洗盐一直是治理盐碱地以及防治绿洲农田土壤次生盐渍化行之有效的措施,面对干旱区严重的缺水问题,深入研究不同灌溉模式下土壤盐分运移特征,是确定节水灌溉洗盐制度的基础,对于绿洲农业的可持续发展具有重要意义。本研究以中国科学院阜康荒漠生态系统观测试验站为依托,采用田间试验和室外模拟试验相结合的方法,探讨了不同灌溉模式和不同灌溉定额相互结合条件下农田土壤盐分的时空变化特征,确定了在不同灌溉模式下不同灌溉定额对盐碱地的改良效果和盐分淋洗效率。主要结论如下。(1)不同灌溉模式下,在设计灌溉定额 2500-7000m3/hm2 情况下,生育期内0—80cm 土壤盐分均表现为脱盐趋势,而 80cm 以下土壤盐分含量呈增加趋势,说明土壤盐分在水分淋洗下由表聚型转为底聚型。在灌溉期表层土壤盐分的变化较底层剧烈。(2)膜下滴灌情况下,灌水量越大,脱盐率越高,盐分淋洗效果越好。垂直方向上,灌水量越大土壤盐分被淋洗的越深,灌溉定额为 7000 m3/hm2 时淋洗深度达到了 1.2,而 4000 m3/hm2 和 3000 m3/hm2 时的灌溉定额的淋洗深度为 1 米甚至以上土层;水平方向上,灌水量越大,不同土层膜中和膜间的土壤盐分分异越大,灌溉定额为 7000 m3/hm2 时不同土层膜中和膜间含盐量的差异均大于 0.03g/kg。(3)沟/畦灌情况下,盐分本底值越高,土壤盐分淋洗效果越好。5 号试验田为各试验田中土壤盐分总储量最高,其剖面土壤平均含盐量为 0.82g/kg,远高于其它试验田,其脱盐效果也最好,在 6000m3/hm2灌溉定额下 1.4m 以内甚至更深土层也表现为脱盐现象。(4)从脱盐率看,相同灌溉定额条件下,膜下滴灌的脱盐率要低于畦灌和沟灌的脱盐率,其中膜下滴灌的脱盐率均在 35%以下,而沟灌和畦灌的脱盐率均在 20%以上;从淋洗效率看,土壤盐分淋洗效率 K 值要大于沟灌和畦灌的 K 值,淋洗相同盐分所需的水量膜下滴灌要高于畦灌和沟灌。总体表现为灌溉水量越大,对土壤盐分的淋洗效果越好。
学科领域自然地理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14889
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
罗雪园. 不同灌溉模式下绿洲土壤盐分再分布研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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