EGI OpenIR  > 研究系统  > 荒漠环境研究室
氮肥管理措施对新疆膜下滴灌棉田温室气体排放的影响
马志雯
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor高霄鹏
2017-05-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline工程硕士
Keyword4R 新疆棉田 膜下滴灌 温室气体 氮肥管理 4R Xinjiang cotton field Plastic mulching and drip irrigation Greenhouse gas Nitrogen fertilizer management
AbstractAs the dominant cultivation system for cotton production in arid northwesternChina, the plastic mulching with drip irrigation system has many advantages such aswater conservation, soil warming and improving soil physical characteristics. Exploring "4R" fertilizer nitrogen (N) stewardship to improve fertilizer N useefficiency and reduce soil greenhouse gas emissions under such cultivation system isan important and urgent research topic in the area of arid land resources andenvironment. In this study, a field experiment was conducted at a cotton field underplastic mulching and drip irrigation at the Xinjiang National Grey Desert Soil Stationin 2015 and 2016. Static chamber-gas chromatography method was used to monitornitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions underdifferent N fertilizer management practices over the growing season. Meteorologicaldata and soil environmental factors were collected and used to identify the drivingfactors of soil greenhouse gas emissions from cotton fields under such a cultivationsystem. The effects of N fertilizer management practice on plant biomass, nitrogenuptake, yield and fiber quality of cotton were also evaluated. The main results were asfollow:(1) Emission peaks of soil N2O mainly occurred within one month after theapplication of basal fertilizer. Applications of in-season fertilizers with irrigation(fertigation) for urea (U) and urea with urease inhibitor and nitrification inhibitor (UI) treatments, however, did not induce N2O emission peaks. The cumulative N2Oemissions was greatest for polymer-coated urea (ESN) treatment (473 g N2O-N hm-2), which was 1.4~1.8 times greater than those of other treatments. N2O emission factorsof fertilizer treatments were only 0.008~0.089% in this study, which wereconsiderably lower than those reported in other studies. Cumulative emissions of CO2and CH4, global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity differed betweenyears but were not significantly affected by N treatments. (2) The low soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) and significantly positivecorrelation between cumulative N2O emission and nitrate intensity (R2=0.299,P<0.01)indicated that nitrification was the dominant process for N2O production in cottonfield under plastic mulching and drip irrigation in the arid region. The significantcorrelations of soil CO2 emission with soil temperature (R=0.788, P<0.01) or soilWFPS (R=0.378, P<0.01) implied that the difference of soil CO2 emissions betweenyears were possibly caused by the variations of soil temperature and moisture. (3) UI did not significantly affect the plant biomass, N uptake and N allocationsinto different parts of cotton compared to U. In 2015, applying ESN increased theplant biomass due to the high precipitation and air temperature. However, ESN didnot significantly affect N uptake and N allocations into different parts of cotton. Theplant biomass, N uptake, N allocation rates of cotton stalk and seed variedconsiderably between years. The plant biomass and N uptake were 1.4~2.3 and1.4~2.0 times greater in 2016 than in 2015, respectively. N allocation rate into cottonstalk was 49.2% higher in 2016 than in 2015, while N allocation rate into cotton seedwas 19.4% lower in 2016 than in 2015. (4) Seed cotton yield, lint cotton yield, lint percentage and fiber quality were notaffected by fertilizer N treatments in this study. By contrast, seed cotton yield, lintpercentage and most of the fiber quality indexes including fiber upper half meanlength, uniformity, strength, short fiber ratio, micronaire and spinning consistencyindex differed between years. For example, short fiber ratio and micronaire weregreater in 2015 than in 2016, while the other quality indexes were greater in 2016 than in 2015.
Other Abstract膜下滴灌是我国西北干旱区棉花的主要种植模式,具有节水、增温和改善土壤物理性状等优点。如何在膜下滴灌条件下应用氮肥的“4R”管理原则,实现氮肥高效利用并减少土壤温室气体的排放,是干旱区资源环境领域亟待解决的重要科学问题。本研究以新疆灰漠土国家土壤肥力监测基地的膜下滴灌棉田为研究对象,在 2015 和 2016 年进行了两年的田间试验,应用静态暗箱-气相色谱法观测了生育期不同氮肥管理措施下土壤氧化亚氮(N2O)、二氧化碳(CO2)和甲烷(CH4)的排放特征,收集了农田气象资料和环境因子数据,初步探讨了干旱区膜下滴灌棉田土壤温室气体排放的影响因子和特征,并分析了不同氮肥管理措施对膜下滴灌棉田棉花产量及氮素吸收和利用的影响。主要的研究结果如下:(1)土壤 N2O 的排放高峰主要出现在基肥施用后的 1 个月内,但生育期内的随滴灌追肥并没有增加尿素(U)和尿素配施硝化抑制剂和脲酶抑制剂(UI)处理的 N2O 排放量;树脂包膜尿素(ESN)处理下的 N2O 累积排放量最高(473g N2O-N hm-2),并显著高于其他处理(P<0.01),约为其他处理的 1.4~1.8 倍,但与过往研究中农田的 N2O 排放因子相比,本研究施肥处理的 N2O 排放因子较低,仅为 0.008~0.089%;相比之下,CO2 和 CH4 的累积排放量、全球增温潜势和温室气体强度主要受年份而非氮肥管理措施的影响。(2)本试验条件下各处理较低的土壤充水孔隙度(WFPS)以及 N2O 累积排放量与硝化强度之间的显著正相关性(R2=0.299,P<0.01)表明硝化作用是干旱区膜下滴灌棉田土壤 N2O 产生的主要过程;土壤 CO2 排放量与土壤温度(R=0.788,P<0.01)和土壤 WFPS(R=0.378,P<0.01)之间呈显著正相关,表明年际间土壤 CO2排放量的差异可能主要与土壤温湿度的变化有关。(3)与 U 处理相比,UI 处理没有显著影响棉花的生物量、吸氮量及氮素在各部位的分配率;在雨水较多和气温较高的年份(2015 年),施用 ESN 有助于提升棉花的生物量,但未显著影响棉花的吸氮量及各部位的氮素分配率;各处理的棉花生物量、吸氮量以及棉杆和棉籽的氮素分配率具有较大的年际变化,2016年的生物量和吸氮量分别是 2015 年的 1.4~2.3 倍和 1.4~2.0 倍,而棉杆和棉籽的氮素分配率分别比 2015 年高 49.2%和低 19.4%。(4)氮肥管理措施未显著影响籽棉产量、皮棉产量、衣分含量以及棉花的纤维品质;年份显著影响了籽棉产量、衣分含量以及包括棉花纤维的上半部平均长、纤维整齐度、断裂比强度、短纤维率、马克隆值和纺纱一致性指数在内的多数棉花纤维品质指标,其中短纤维率和马克隆值在 2015 年优于 2016,其余指标则在 2016 年优于 2015 年。
Subject Area环境工程
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14891
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
马志雯. 氮肥管理措施对新疆膜下滴灌棉田温室气体排放的影响[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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