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沙拐枣光合生理特性的比较研究
潘航
学位类型硕士
导师尹林克 ; 冯缨
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学硕士
关键词沙拐枣 光合 抗性指标 生态化学计量学 Calligonum L. Photosynthesis Resistance index Ecological stoichiometry
摘要Species of Calligonum L. in Turpan desert botanical garden of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Xinjiang Ecology and Geography were chosen as research materials confirmed by consulting specimen and relevant literature information. Their photosynthetic characteristics, physiological indicators, element contents were measured and analyzed through the mean variance analysis and the principal component analysis. All these results could supply theoretical basis for the protection, restoration and reasonable utilization of Calligonum L. The results of the study were as follows:(1) There were significant differences between genus Calligonum species. Survey of 4 species’ daily variation of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of Calligonum L. showed that C. calliphysa, C. Leucocladu and C. Klementzii were “double peaks” and C. ebi-nurcum was “single peak”. The influencing factors of photosynthetic rate to C. calliphysa, C. Leucocladu and C. Klementzii were mainly composed of non-stomatal factors.(2) The photosynthetic characteristics of 4 Calligonum species were examined and analyzed by the modified rectangular hyperbola model. It revealed that C. ebi-nurcum was plant with high Pn and transpiration rate (Tr), C. ebi-nurcum had higher maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax), light saturation point (LSP) and large range of light adaptation which showed well adaptability to the environment. C. calliphysa had the highest water use efficiency (WUE), low transpiration rate, low photosynthetic rate, low stomatal conductance and high stomatal limitation(Ls), and this can explain that C. calliphysa enhance water use efficiency to adapt drought stress by reducing stomatal conductance to reduce transpiration rate. Moreover, the lowest apparent quantum yield (AQY) and highest light compensation point (LCP) were observed in C. calliphysa which seemed to be the low utilization of light. C. Leucocladu had highest AQY and lowest LCP value which showed the efficient use of weak light, while the photosynthetic rate sharply drop at noon influenced by non-stomatal factors. C. Klementzii was poor adaptability to the drought environment with low WUE, Pmax and light utilization range. These analysis results were highly conform to the ecological distribution of genus Calligonum in Xinjiang.(3) 10 Calligonum species were selected to study the differences of physiological characteristics of Calligonum species under the desert habitat. 7 physiological indexes were measured, the differences were analyzed by variance analysis, and resistance was comprehensively evaluated by principal component analysis. The results showed that the physiological indexes in the same habitat were significantly different (P<0.01), the comprehensive resistance was in the following order: C. junceum > C. ebi-nurcum > C. densum > C. leucocladum > C. klementzii > C. cordatum > C. rubicundum > C. arborescens > C. caput-medsae > C. pumilum. Calligonum have different resistance mechanisms with different content of protective enzyme. The results were very anastomotic with ecological distribution of Calligonum in Xinjiang. The experiment could provide scientific basis for introducing, cultivating and screening desert plants of Calligonum in resistance.(4) The analysis of element contents of 10 Calligonum species showed that the distribution of nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P) and kalium (K) was inequality in different Calligonum species which dues to the selective absorption. The contents of N was highest in C. arborescens, lowest in C. rubicundum, and all 10 species were below the average level of China 20.2 g/kg, the global average 20.6 g/kg and the north desert level 24.4 g/kg. The contents of P was highest in C. densum, lowest in C. pumilum, and 5 species were below the average level of China 1.46g/kg, and 8 species were below the global average 1.99 g/kg. The contents of K was found highest in C. rubicundum and lowest in C. rubicundum. These revealed that C. arborescens could better use N element, C. densum had high utilization of P, while C. rubicundum made efficient use of K.(5) The ratio element content between ten Calligonum species also showed significant difference. The N/P ratio was found highest in C. pumilum and lowest in C. densum and C. cordatum. The N/K ratio was found higher in C. arborescens, C. calliphysa, C. pumilum and C. caput-medusae, while lower in C. leucocladu, C. rubicundum and C. Cordatum. C. leucocladu and C. rubicundum had highest K/P ratio while C. densum had the lowest. This study suggested that genus Calligonum in Turpan desert botanical garden were easily affected by N limitation. Especially for nitrogen deficiency in Xinjiang desert, introducing, cultivating and screening Calligonum specie with efficient absorption and utilization of N, high efficiency of photosynthesis and high adaptation to stress is very important.Key words: Calligonum L.; Photosynthesis; Resistance index; Ecological stoichiometry.
其他摘要以吐鲁番沙漠植物园中栽培的沙拐枣属(Calligonum L.)植物为研究对象,通过对沙拐枣进行光合数据测定,分析其差异性;并测定7个抗逆生理指标,利用方差分析结合主成分分析综合评价沙拐枣的抗逆性;同时,测定沙拐枣同化枝N、P、K元素含量,结合生态化学计量学理论对沙拐枣适应性进行综合分析。为沙拐枣属植物在荒漠恢复重建中的保护、合理利用提供理论依据。研究结果如下:(1) 沙拐枣属植物的光合特性存在种间差异。对泡果沙拐枣(C. calliphysa)、淡枝沙拐枣(C. leucocladum)、奇台沙拐枣(C. klementzii)和艾比湖沙拐枣(C. ebi-nurcum)的光合数据的测量结果显示,泡果沙拐枣、淡枝沙拐枣、奇台沙拐枣光合速率日进程均是双峰曲线,艾比湖沙拐枣的光合速率为单峰曲线,且泡果沙拐枣、淡枝沙拐枣、奇台沙拐枣午休现象均由非气孔因素导致。(2) 4种沙拐枣相较,艾比湖沙拐枣属于高光合,高蒸腾的植物,最大净光合速率大,光饱和点高,可利用光照范围大,表现出对环境良好的适应性。泡果沙拐枣水分利用效率最高,蒸腾速率低,气孔导度小,气孔限制值大,光合速率较低,通过降低气孔导度来降低蒸腾速率,提高水分利用效率,适应干旱胁迫,维持自身生命活动。泡果沙拐枣表现量子效率最低,光补偿点最高,利用弱光能力最弱。淡枝沙拐枣表现量子效率最大,光补偿点最低,能够高效的利用弱光,但是非气孔因素导致午休现象明显。奇台沙拐枣水分利用效率较低,最大净光合速率最低,可利用光照范围小,表现出对干旱环境较差的适应性。光合数据的分析结果与沙拐枣在新疆的生态分布范围相吻合。(3) 10种沙拐枣不同生理指标表现出显著的种间差异,且采用不同指标对沙拐枣种进行评价结果不同。主成分分析综合评价结果显示泡果沙拐枣抗逆性最强,其次为艾比湖沙拐枣;密刺沙拐枣(C. densum )、淡枝沙拐枣、奇台沙拐枣、心形沙拐枣(C. cordatum )、红果沙拐枣(C. rubicundum)表现中等抗逆性;乔木状沙拐枣(C. arborescens)、头状沙拐枣(C. caput-medusae)、小沙拐枣(C. pumilum)抗逆性相对较差。该结果与沙拐枣对新疆荒漠环境的生态适应范围相符合。(4) 对10种沙拐枣的元素含量分析结果显示,植物的选择吸收和不同种植物化学元素分布的不均一性,乔木状沙拐枣同化枝中N含量最高,红果沙拐枣N含量最低,10种沙拐枣同化枝的N元素含量均低于中国平均水平20.2 g/kg,全球平均水平20.6 g/kg,北方荒漠水平24.4 g/kg。密刺沙拐枣同化枝中P含量最高,小沙拐枣同化枝中P含量最低,5种沙拐枣P含量水平低于中国平均水平1.46g/kg,8种沙拐枣P含量水平低于全球1.99g/kg。红果沙拐枣同化枝中K含量最高,小沙拐枣同化枝中K含量最低。乔木状沙拐枣能够更好地利用氮素,密刺沙拐枣能够更好地利用磷素,红果沙拐枣能够更好地利用钾元素。(5) 小沙拐枣同化枝中的N/P最大,密刺沙拐枣、心形沙拐枣同化枝中的N/P较小;乔木状沙拐枣、泡果沙拐枣、小沙拐枣、头状沙拐枣N/K较高,淡枝沙拐枣、红果沙拐枣、心形沙拐枣N/K较低,淡枝沙拐枣和红果沙拐枣同化枝中K/P最高,密刺沙拐枣最低。本研究中10种沙拐枣的N/P均小于14,表示该植物生长更易受到N元素限制。尤其对于新疆缺氮的荒漠现状,选择高效吸收和利用氮素,提高光合作用效率,适应氮元素限制及逆境胁迫的沙拐枣种尤为重要。
学科领域植物学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14893
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
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潘航. 沙拐枣光合生理特性的比较研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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