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阿尔泰山边境铁丝网及对野生动物影响
吴道宁
学位类型硕士
导师马鸣
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学硕士
关键词阿尔泰山 野生动物 边境铁丝网 生物通道 开放方式 Altay Mountain wildlife resource border fences biological corridor opening methods
摘要Border fences impact on wildlife migration, such as large mammals, geese andduckes.So the purpose of this study is to understand the status of wild animalresources in the Altay Prefecture, to investigate the situation of border fences at theAltay Mountains, to make clear the border fences impacted on animals, to putforward to restore or build biological corridor proposals, and come up with atransboundary protected area idea in the border area. The main results are as follows:1)Wildlife resources in the Altay Prefecture.The Altay Prefecture had 7 orders, 13 families, 31 genera and 35 - 42 species offish, 1 order, 2 families, 2 genera and 2 species of amphibians, 2 orders, 4 families,and 5genera and 11 species of reptiles, 20 orders, 61 families, 171 genera and 350species of birds, 7 orders, 20 families and 64 species of mammals.2)The status of border fences of the Altay Mountains.Border fences of the Altay Mountains involves China, Kazakhstan, Russia andMongolia, with the length of 1 205 km. The border fences height is 2.0 - 2.8 m,single door width is 1.2 - 1.3cm and height is 1.9 - 2.0 m. double doors width is 3.4 -3.6 m and height is 2.0 m. flood discharge culvert width is 98.2 cm and height is81.3 cm while length is 493.0 cm along the border fences.3)Border fences impacted on wildlife at Altay Mountains.We found wild animal corpses and furs, such as Red deer(Cervus elaphus),Siberian ibex(Capra sibirica)and Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) on theborder fences at the Altay Mountains. Death rate was approximately 0.74 individuals/ km in the Aketasibulake regional.Using camera trap to monitor results showed wildlife movement around theborder fences, such as Wolverine, Red deers and Siberian ibexes. Some infraredcameras monitored wild animal prowl back and forth near the border fences in winter. Many experiments showed that the border fences of the Altay Mountains hasno effect on reptiles, amphibians and small mammals, but the large andmedium-sized mammals, birds that in the wetlands were greatly impacted by theborder fences. It was estimated that 32.81% mammals and 16.57% birds may beaffected by the border fences in the Altay Prefecture.4)How did the local people know border fences?Survey results indicated that building border fence made wild animalspopulation decrease,and affected their activities and behaviors. Border fencesbecome the main factors that threatening the existence of wild animals at AltayMountains. Most interviewees considered that it was necessary to open wildlifecorridors in the border areas, they were willing to take part in protecting animals..5)Biological corridor recommends.In the border area, the influence of border fences on the migration of wildanimals is remarkable, especially the migration, hatching, changing hair, hiding,mating, calving, spreading, foraging and licking salt. The restoration orestablishment of biological channels in the border area of the Altay Mountains andthe construction of Transboundary Protected Area are conducive to improving theliving conditions of wild animals. Opening methods of biological corridor were (1)migration passage opening, (2)target species of biological corridor opening, (3)phased in stages opening, (4) alpine areas, depopulated zone or seasonal opening.We must take effective measures to ensure the safety of the border area after openingthe border fences.
其他摘要由于边境铁丝网(隔离墙)影响野生动物迁徙,如大型兽类和边境湿地活动鸟类,因此本研究主要目的是了解阿勒泰地区野生动物资源状况,调查阿尔泰山边境铁丝网现状,弄清楚受到边境铁丝网影响的野生动物,提出边境地区恢复或建立生物通道建议,构建跨境自然保护区设想。结果如下:1)阿勒泰地区野生动物资源阿勒泰地区具有丰富的野生动物资源,其中鱼类 7 目 13 科 31 属,35~42种;两栖类 1 目 2 科 2 属 2 种;爬行动物 2 目 4 科 5 属,约 11 种;鸟类 21 目61 科 171 属,约 350 种;兽类 6 目 19 科,约 63 种。2)阿尔泰山边境地区铁丝网现状阿尔泰山边境铁丝网,涉及中国、哈萨克斯坦、俄罗斯、蒙古 4 国,边境线长 1 205 km。阿尔泰山边境铁丝网高度 2.0~2.8 m。边境线上单扇门门宽1.2~1.3 m,门高 1.9~2.0 m;双扇门门宽 3.4~3.6 m,门高 2.0 m。偶然有泄洪涵洞,宽 98.2 cm,高 81.3 cm,洞长 493.0 cm。3)阿尔泰山地区铁丝网对野生动物影响阿尔泰山边境铁丝网上发现马鹿(Cervus elaphus)、北山羊(Capra sibirica)、鹅喉羚(Gazella subgutturosa)等尸体、遗骸、毛和皮。在阿克塔斯布拉克区域,发现死亡的鹅喉羚、马鹿、针尾鸭(Anas acuta)、灰雁(Anser anser)和斑翅山鹑(Perdix dauurica)等,死亡密度大约 0.74 只/km。红外相机监测结果显示,紫貂(Martes zebellina)、石貂(Martes foina)、貂熊(Gulo gulo)、马鹿、北山羊等在铁丝网附近活动;在冬季监测到野生动物在铁丝网周围徘徊。调查表明,阿尔泰山边境铁丝网对爬行类、两栖类和小型兽类没有影响,大、中型兽类和边境湿地活动的鸟类有影响。据估计,阿勒泰地区 31.75%兽类(20 种)和 16.57%鸟类(58 种),可能受到边境铁丝网影响。共回收 198 份有效调查问卷。结果显示,80.25%被访问者认为边境铁丝网 建立,影响到野生动物活动。铁丝网阻隔(17.57%)已成为威胁边境地区野生 动物生存的主要因素。64.20%认为有必要在边境开通生物通道。大多数边民 (70.37%)都愿意为保护野生动物贡献一份力量。 5)边境生物通道建议 边境地区铁丝网对迁徙野生动物影响程度大,尤其迁徙、换角、换毛、寻 偶、交配、产仔、扩散、觅食与食盐影响比较显著。因此,在阿尔泰山边境地 区恢复或建立生物通道,构建跨境自然保护区,有利于改善野生动物生存条件。 生物通道开通方式有:(1)迁徙通道处开放,(2)针对目标物种生物通道开放, (3)分期分阶段开放,(4)高山区、无人区或季节性开放。打开铁丝网以后,实行 有效的防控手段确保边境地区安全。
学科领域生态学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14907
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
吴道宁. 阿尔泰山边境铁丝网及对野生动物影响[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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