EGI OpenIR  > 研究系统  > 空间对地观测与系统模拟研究室
准噶尔西部农业开发区表层土壤盐分时空变化
张寿雨
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor吴世新
2017-05-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword克拉玛依 土壤盐渍化 开垦年限 时空变化 地下水 Karamay soil salinization reclamation years temporal and spatial changes groundwater depth
AbstractSoil salinization directly threatens the stability of desert oasis ecological environmentand the sustainable development of agricultural production. It is of great significance forthe prevention and control of soil salinization, the rational use of cultivated land resourcesin arid area and the maintenance of oasis agroecosystem in exploring the spatial andtemporal pattern of salinization after cultivated land reclamation in inland arid area. Basedon soil sampling data and remote sensing images, combined with field investigation,statistics, remote sensing and geographic information system, this paper quantitativelyanalysis the spatial and temporal distribution and change characteristics of soil salinizationin the Karamay Agricultural Development Zone before and after reclamation, revealing thedistribution characteristics and changes of soil salinization under different reclamationyears and different groundwater levels. The main conclusions are as follows:(1) The soil salinization in the study area has a tendency to decrease, but there aredifferences in different stages and different regions. The results of soil sampling in 1996,2006 and 2016 indicate that the salinization in the southern part of the study area is higherthan that in the northern region, and change range of the salinization in the southern area isgreater than that in the north. Severe and moderate salinization is mainly distributed in thesouthern region, non-salinization and mild salinization is mainly distributed in the northernregion.(2) During the period from 1996 to 2016, More than 45% of the areas of soilsalinization were changed in different ranges. The degree of soil salinization is mainlymanifested as an increase in non-salinized soil area and a decrease in mild, moderate andsevere salinized soil area. Non-salinization is mainly from the transfer of mild salinizedsoil, mild, moderate and severe salinization were transferred to the soil type, which waslighter than the level of their salinization, and shifted from the soil type, which was severerthan the level of their salinization. Different salinized soil types varied from 1996 to 2006and 2006 to 2016.(3) The study area is basically in accordance with the order from north to south development, in 2001 for the first time a large-scale cultivation, 2014, all reclamation iscompleted. With the increase of reclamation period, the total salt content of soil samplingpoints showed a decreasing tendency, but the fluctuation of change gradually increasedwith the passage of time. The sampling point of soil total salt content large fluctuation in2016 is mainly located in the southwest of the study area, and it is not reclaimed in thesampling area in 2006, which indicates that the degree of salinization in this area isrelatively heavy and the change is complicated.(4) The background conditions of soil salinization in the study area have somedifferences in spatial distribution, and this difference always exists at different times afterreclamation. In areas with long reclamation periods, soil salinization is relatively light andthe reclamation period is shorter, and soil salinization is relatively heavy. Reclamationresulted in a decrease in the degree of salinization in the study area and a decrease insalinization between different sub-areas.(5) From 2006 to 2015, the groundwater level inside and outside the study areashowed an increasing trend, and the distribution pattern of high groundwater level centeredon the southwest was formed in the study area by 2015. The internal groundwater level issignificantly higher than the external area, the groundwater level rises more than theexternal area. There are significant differences in the groundwater level in the differentseasons in the study area. The summer and autumn water levels are higher than those in thespring, and the seasonal variation of the groundwater level in the external area is small.There was no significant relationship between the water depth and soil total salt content in2006, mainly due to the lower groundwater level in the study area in 2006, and the input ofirrigation water was mainly salt washing. In 2016, the groundwater level was higher, andwith the increase of water depth, the total soil content of soil showed a decreasing trend.Moderate and severe salinization distribution area is basically located in 2006 ~ 2015groundwater level less than 2.5 meters in the area.
Other Abstract土壤盐渍化直接威胁着荒漠绿洲生态环境的稳定性及农业生产的可持续发展。探索内陆干旱区耕地开垦后盐渍化时空格局的演变,对于盐渍化的预防治理、干旱区耕地资源的合理利用、绿洲农业生态系统稳定性的维护具有重大价值。为此,本文利用遥感影像和土壤采样数据,结合野外调查、统计学、遥感和地理信息系统等手段,分析了克拉玛依农业开发区开垦前后耕地盐渍化的空间分布及时空变化,揭示了不同开垦年限、不同地下水位埋深下盐渍化的分布特征及其变化。主要研究结果如下:(1) 研究区开垦后土壤盐渍化总体呈现减轻的趋势,但是不同阶段以及不同区域的变化有所差异。1996、2006 和 2016 年三次土壤采样结果均表明研究区南部盐渍化重于北部地区,且南部地区盐渍化变化的剧烈程度大于北部。重度和中度盐渍化的主体部分位于研究区南部地区,非盐渍化和轻度盐渍化的主体部分位于研究区北部地区。(2) 1996~2016 年研究区内超过 45%的区域内土壤盐渍化发生了不同程度的变化。盐渍化程度减轻主要体现在非盐渍化面积比重的提高和轻度、中度和重度盐渍化土壤面积的减少。非盐渍化主要来自轻度盐渍化的转入;轻度、中度和重度盐渍化三者均向比自身盐渍化轻一级的土壤类型转出,转入主要来自比自身盐渍化重一级的土壤类型。盐渍化土壤在 1996~2006 年和 2006~2016 年两个阶段的变化不尽相同。(3) 研究区基本上按照由北向南的顺序开发,于 2001 年首次进行大规模开垦种植,2014 年全部开垦完毕。随着开垦年限的增长,土壤采样点的盐分总体上呈现减少的趋势,但是随着时间的推移,变化的波动性逐渐加大。2016 年土壤总盐含量较高波动性较大的采样点主要位于研究区西南部,在 2006 年采样时处于未开垦状态,表明该地区盐渍化情况较重且波动情况较为复杂。(4) 研究区开垦年限较长的地区,土壤盐渍化有所减轻,开垦年限较小的地区,土壤盐渍化依旧比较严重。开垦种植使得研究区盐渍化程度有所下降,同时也使得不同子区域之间的盐渍化差异有所减小。(5) 2006~2015 年研究区内部和外部的地下水位均呈现上升的趋势,至 2015年研究区内部形成以西南部为中心的高地下水位的分布格局。内部的地下水位明显高于外围区域,其地下水位上升幅度大于外部区域。研究区内部不同季节的地下水位有明显差距,夏季和秋季的地水位高于春季,外部地区地下水位的季节差异较小。2006年的水位埋深与土壤总盐含量无明显关系,主要是由于 2006 年研究区地下水位较低,灌溉用水的输入主要以洗盐为主。2016 年研究区内,总体上随着水位埋深的提高,土壤总盐含量有所下降。中度和重度盐渍化分布区域基本位于 2006~2015 年地下水位埋深小于 2.5 米的区域内。
Subject Area地图学与地理信息系统
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14911
Collection研究系统_空间对地观测与系统模拟研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张寿雨. 准噶尔西部农业开发区表层土壤盐分时空变化[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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