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模拟水、氮脉冲变化对两种荒漠一年生植物生长和物种竞争的影响
张永梅
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor唐立松
2017-12-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword荒漠一年生植物 卷果涩荠 水、氮添加模式 开花物候 物种竞争 Desert Annual Plant Malcolmia Africana Water and Nitrogen Application Patterns Flowering Phenology Species Competition
AbstractWater in desert areas is the most important factor limiting plant growth. Innatural conditions, the availability of moisture and nitrogen is dependent on thedynamic changes in the environment, the fluctuation of precipitation and resourcepulse greatly impact the germination, individual growth and reproduction of differentdesert plants. Spring annual plants, also called ephemerals, and summer annual plantshave significant different water and nutrient use efficiency. Therefore, we infer thatthe seasonal variation of water and N availability will change the growth dynamicsand interspecific relationship of these two different life forms of plants, and it willalso affect their relationship in community phenology. This study examined anephemeral (Malcolmia Africana) plant’s characteristics in terms of floweringphenology, individual growth, biomass distribution and interspecific competition withan annual grass specie known as Descuminia Sophia with a long life cycle response toseasonal nitrogen availability. Plants received the same amount of water in threedifferent patterns according to the real water and N deposition in study area. The mainresults are as follows:Nitrogen application patterns have a significant effect on the process of M.african’s flowering phenology with a typical single-peak curve under the even modeland spring-dominated model, and a trend of two-peak curve under summer-dominatedmodel. The final plant height of M. African under spring-dominated model is thehighest in three treatments in individual growth.Different water application patterns significantly changed the flowering curve ofthe flowering grain. Compared to the average model of water addition, the index andthe single-peak water patterns make the flowering peak in advance. Compared to theindividual growth environment, under the competition with D. sophia, the ratio offlowering of M. africana changed a lot in different time. The flowering of M. Africanaunder the average water pattern is more dispersed in individual growth environmentbut more concentrated in intergrowth environment.The competition for water is more intense in individual growth environment thanthat in intergrowth environment. The M. africana is sensitive to precipitation and itcan use the short-term sufficient water to grow but with lower drought resilience thanD. sophia with the longer life history. Under the background of increasing spatial-temporal distribution of precipitation in arid area, the amount and pattern ofprecipitation variability will make an important effect on desert plants’ growth,phenology and even community composition.
Other Abstract荒漠地区水分是限制植物生长最重要的环境因素。在自然情况下,水分和 N素的可利用性是动态变化的,降水和资源脉冲的波动对不同功能型荒漠植物的萌发、个体生长和繁殖会产生差异化的影响。春季一年生植物(短命植物)与夏季一年生植物具有显著不同的水分和养分利用效率,因此,我们推测水分和 N 素可利用性的变化将改变这两类不同生活型植物的生长动态和物种关系,从而影响他们在群落中的物候特征。实验内容是通过分别添加水分和氮素的两个平行实验模拟了水分和氮素可利用性的变化,并测定了三种水、氮的模式下植物的开花物候、株高、生物量分配和养分含量等指标,从而研究水、氮的不同添加特征对荒漠一年生植物卷果涩荠和播娘蒿的开花物候、个体生长、生物量分配的影响。同时,通过比较盆栽卷果涩荠植株在种内竞争和与播娘蒿种间竞争的生长变化,分析了不同水、氮的模式对种内和种间竞争效应的影响。主要结果如下:供氮模式显著影响了卷果涩荠开花物候。均匀和春季供氮处理下卷果涩荠开花振幅表现为单峰曲线,而夏季供氮处理下呈双峰型。春季供氮处理下,卷果涩荠株高显著高于均匀供氮和夏季供氮处理下的株高。水分添加模式显著改变了卷果涩荠开花振幅曲线。相较于独生环境,与播娘蒿混生环境下的卷果涩荠在不同时间上的开花比例发生了变化,平均模式下,混生卷果涩荠开花较为集中,独生卷果涩荠开花较为分散。独生的卷果涩荠对水分的竞争比与播娘蒿混生的卷果涩荠对水分的竞争更为激烈,卷果涩荠对降水较为敏感,利用短时充足水分生长,但抗旱性不如生活史较长的播娘蒿。在干旱区域降水时空分布变化不断加剧的背景下,不同降水脉冲模式势必会对荒漠植被的生长、物候进程、群落组成变化产生重要的影响。在干旱区域降水时空分布变化不断加剧的背景下,不同降水脉冲模式势必会对荒漠植被的生长、物候进程、群落组成变化产生重要的影响。
Subject Area生态学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14913
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张永梅. 模拟水、氮脉冲变化对两种荒漠一年生植物生长和物种竞争的影响[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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