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退化野果林表层土壤理化特性与微生物群落特征
朱秉坚
学位类型硕士
导师张元明 ; 吴楠
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学硕士
关键词野果林 退化 理化特性 土壤微生物 群落特征 wild fruit forest degeneration soil physico-chemical properties soil microbiota community characteristics
摘要In the present study, soil microbial community was used as the object to investigatethe community structure and diversity characteristics and their under the degeneratedwild apple forest dominated by Malus sieversii in the wild fruit forest improvementstation of Xinyuan county , Xinjiang . The result showed that 1. Soil organic carbon(SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP )soil physical and chemicalproperties of the main indicators in the degenerated area and health range was notsignificantly different (P > 0.05). 2. By means of the coarse cultivation, actinomycetes,fungi number three groups at different distances from the trunk had no obviousregularity, but the numbers of three groups of microbes in degraded areas weresignificantly higher than that under alive trees crown (P < 0.05). By plate cultivationmethod, we found that the number of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi exhibited noobvious regularity among different distances to the tree trunk. However, the numbersof bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi under dead wild apple trees crown were insignificantly higher than those under alive wild apple trees crown(P < 0.05). Theculture-dependent fungi can be divided into 3 phyla, 6 classes,8 orders,10 familiesand11 genera.The shared fungi genera were Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus,Absidia, Nectria, Trichoderma, Metarhizium, the endemic genera under alive wildapple trees crown were Clonostachys, Purpureocillium and the endemic genera underdead wild apple trees crown were Leptosphaeria, Phoma.3. The soil harbored similarmicrobiota at the dominant taxonomic levels ( from phylum to genus). By the 16SrRNA gene sequencing and analysis, the soil bacterial microbiota can be divided into35 phyla, 104 classes,160 orders,199 families and 305 genera. At the phylum level,the microbiota were dominated by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Crenarchaeota,Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi. The predominant families were Nitrososphaeraceae,Gaiellaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, Chitinophagaceae, Micromonosporaceae. At thegenus level, the microbiota were dominated by Candidatus Nitrososphaera,Rhodoplanes, Pseudonocardia. The tree dieback decreased the soil bacterialcommunity diversity(shannon and chao1 diversity index)but it showed no significant difference between alive wild apple trees crown and dead wild apple trees crown.4. By the ITS gene sequencing and analysis, the soil fungal microbiota can be dividedinto 6 phyla, 20 classes,79 orders,150 families and 361 genera. At the phylum level,the microbiota can be by Ascomycota, Basidiomycota , Zygomycota,Chytridiomycota , Rozellomycota, Glomeromycota and some unclassfied fungi. TheAscomycota was the dominant phylum with the relative abundance 77%-95%. Thepredominant families were Trichocomaceae , Herpotrichiellaceae , Nectriaceae,Lasiosphaeriaceae, Chaetomiaceae, Sporormiaceae. At the genus level, the fungicommunities were dominated by Penicillium, Exophiala, Mortierella, Fusarium,Ochroconis Trichocladium, Preussia, Podospora, Cyphellophora, Tetracladium. Thetree dieback decreased the soil fungal community diversity(shannon and chao1diversity index)but it showed no significant difference between alive wild apple treescrown and dead wild apple trees crown. 5. The degeneration of wild fruit forestdecreased the genetic diversity of topsoil microbiota. The microbial population oftopsoil under alive and dead apple trees crown showed a significant differentiation.6.The above study may indicate that a variety of aspects (soil nutrient, soil enzymeactivity, the number of cultivatable microorganisms, microbial community structureand diversity ) of the soil quality responded differently to the degeneration of the wildfruit forest. Compared to the soil physical and chemical properties, the soil microbiotaitself responded more sensitively to the degeneration of the wild fruit forest. When itcomes to the ecological restoration and conservation of the wild fruit forest in thefuture, it may not need to consider the soil nutrient status of itself in a short term. Itmay provide new thoughts for applying microbial agent to facilitate the ecologicalrestoration and conservation in the wild fruit forest.
其他摘要本文以新疆天山伊犁野果林分布区为研究区,以退化野果林建群种新疆野苹果表土层微生物为研究对象,研究了存活与死亡野苹果植株冠幅下表层土壤微生物的群落结构及多样性特征,并分析了影响因素。结果表明:1.存活株与死亡株冠幅下土壤有机碳 SOC、全氮 TN、全磷 TP 等差异不显著(P > 0.05)。2.基于可培养的细菌、放线菌、真菌数量在距离树干不同距离间无明显规律性,但三大类群微生物数量在死亡株冠幅下均显著高于存活株冠幅下(P < 0.05)。可培养真菌共有 3 个门(亚门)6 纲 8 目 10 科 11 属,在属水平上分别为:青霉属 Penicillium、镰刀霉属 Fusarium、曲霉属 Aspergillus、犁头霉属 Absidia、丛赤壳属 Nectria、木霉属 Trichoderma、绿僵茵属 Metarhizium、聚孢霉属 Clonostachys、拟青霉属Purpureocillium、茎点霉属 Phoma、小球腔菌属 Leptosphaeria。存活株与死亡株冠幅下共有属为青霉属、镰刀霉属、曲霉属、犁头霉属、丛赤壳属、木霉属、绿僵菌属,存活株冠幅下特有属为聚孢霉属、拟青霉属,死亡株冠幅下特有属为小球腔菌属、茎点霉属。3.土壤微生物在存活与死亡株冠幅下大部分分类水平上(从门到属)具有相似的类群。通过 16S rRNA gene 测序显示,野果林中表层土壤细菌可分为 35 门 104 纲 160 目 199 科 305 属。其中门水平优势菌群主要有放线菌门 Actinobacteria、变形菌门 Proteobacteria、泉古菌门 Crenarchaeota、酸杆菌门Acidobacteria、绿弯菌门 Chloroflexi 等。科水平优势菌群主要有Nitrososphaeraceae、Gaiellaceae、生丝微菌科 Hyphomicrobiaceae、Chitinophagaceae、小单孢菌科 Micromonosporaceae 等。在属水平上,优势类群主要有 Candidatus Nitrososphaera、Rhodoplanes、Pseudonocardia 等。野果林的退化导致土壤细菌群落多样性降低,但在存活株与死亡株冠幅下差异未达显著。表层土壤细菌群落结构在存活株与死亡株冠幅下呈显著差异(P < 0.05),在距离树干不同水平距离间无显著差异(P > 0.05)。4.通过高通量 ITS 测序显示,野果林中表层土壤真菌可分为 6 门 20 纲 79 目 150 科 361 属。在门水平上主要类群有子囊菌门 Ascomycota、担子菌门 Basidiomycota、Zygomycota、壶菌门Chytridiomycota、罗兹菌门 Rozellomycota、球囊菌门 Glomeromycota 和未分类的真菌;其中子囊菌门为优势菌群,其相对丰度在 77 %—95 %之间。在科水平上主要类群有发菌科 Trichocomaceae、Herpotrichiellaceae、丛赤壳科 Nectriaceae、毛球壳科 Lasiosphaeriaceae、毛壳菌科 Chaetomiaceae、荚孢腔菌科 Sporormiaceae等。在属水平上主要类群有青霉菌属 Penicillium、外瓶霉属 Exophiala、被孢霉属 Mortierella、镰孢属 Fusarium、Ochroconis、短梗蠕孢属 Trichocladium、光黑壳属 Preussia、柄孢壳菌属 Podospora、Cyphellophora、Tetracladium 等。野果林的退化降低了土壤真菌多样性(香农多样性指数和 chao1 指数),但与存活株冠幅下相比,并未达显著差异。表层土壤真菌群落结构在存活株与死亡株冠幅下无显著差异(P = 0.2889>0.05),仅在存活株冠幅下水平距离树干边缘 0 m 与 1 m处差异显著(P < 0.05)。5.野果林退化使死亡株冠幅下土壤微生物遗传多样性略有降低,存活株与死亡株冠幅下土壤微生物居群分化显著。以上研究可能表明,土壤质量的各个方面(土壤养分、土壤酶活性、可培养微生物数量、可培养真菌类群、微生物群落结构、多样性及遗传多样性)对野果林退化的响应不尽相同。与土壤理化特性相比,土壤微生物本身对土壤微生物本身对野果林退化响应更为敏感,野果林的退化、死亡在未来野果林生态恢复时,短期内可能不必考虑土壤本身的养分状况;未来可能尝试在受损林下施加微生物促生菌剂等促进野果林生态恢复与保育。
学科领域植物学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14918
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
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朱秉坚. 退化野果林表层土壤理化特性与微生物群落特征[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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