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准噶尔盆地典型生态系统大气颗粒物特征及氮沉降研究
庄晓玲
学位类型硕士
导师刘学军
2017-05-01
学位授予单位中国科学院大学
学位授予地点新疆乌鲁木齐
学位专业理学硕士
关键词准噶尔盆地 颗粒物 大气活性氮 沉降通量 Junggar basin particulate matter atmospheric reactive nitrogen deposition flux.
摘要Recently, the continual worsening of environment due to natural factors and human activities, Air pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems in China. Airborne inhalable particles (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and atmospheric reactive nitrogen species such as NH3 and NOx will cause harm to human-bodies and the environment. While northwest China’s pollution is certainly less severe problem than the east and coastal cities, but it shows rapidly increased air pollution because of high population density and economic development. Due to the unique natural environment and more serious aridification in Xinjiang region, Nitrogen deposition can cause a series of ecological problems. This thesis selects Junggar basin as a research region, choosing eight sites from grassland, urban, desert, desert and oasis ecotone ecosystems, quantifying atmospheric reactive nitrogen concentration and deposition fluxes, through rain gauges and passive samplers; Meanwhile an urban site was chosen to monitor particulate matter concentrations and chemical compositions using a four-channel partical sampler .The objective of thesis is to provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of atmospheric particulate matter dynamics and atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) deposition in the Junggar basin. The main results of the research are as follows:1. The annual average concentration of PM2.5, PM5, PM10, TSP were 69.34, 118.57, 132. 87 and 215.86 μg m-3 in urban site, respectively. There is no significant difference in particulate matter concentration trends, but they were all highest in February and lowest in July. The annual average concentration of PM10 in desert oasis ecotone was 56.55 μg m-3. It found an obvious difference in seasonal variation, concentration of maximum and minimum value appeared in the winter and summer respectively. The annual average concentration of PM10 was 45.81 μg m-3 and there was no significant difference in seasonal variation of Oasis-desert transitional zone in Mosuowan.2. Through multi-sampling observations, it has an obvious spatial and temporal variation in concentrations of primary Nr (NH3 and NO2) in Junggar basin. The maximum value of concentration of NH3 was 9.38 μg N m-3 in desertification grassland, the minimum value was 2.2 μg N m-3 in Alpine grassland. The maximum value of concentration of NO2 was 25.58 μg N m-3 in urban, the minimum value was 0.74 μg N m-3in Alpine grassland. The concentration of particulate NH4+, NO3- were higher than in winter than other seasons.3. The concentrations of particulate NH4+ and NO3- were closely related to NH3 and NO2 concertrations. The pNH4+ concentration showed significantly positive correlations with the pNO3- concentration. 4. The total nitrogen deposition were 28.66, 26.77, 6.4 kg N ha-1yr-1 in Urumqi, Fu Kang, Jing He sampling sites, the atmospheric dry nitrogen deposition were 21.41, 17.75, 2.94 kg N ha-1yr-1, respectively. For NH4+-N, highest deposition flux occurred in winter, lowest deposition flux in summer. The wet nitrogen deposition was 7.23, 6.69, 11.13, 3.46, 6.82, 1.47 kg N ha-1yr-1 at various sampling sites. The wet nitrogen deposition was influenced by N concentration and precipitation amount.
其他摘要近年来,由于自然因素和人为活动,环境变化愈演愈烈,大气污染成为我们面临的最为严峻的问题。大气可吸入颗粒物(PM10) 、细颗粒物(PM2.5)和NHx、NOx等大气活性氮组分均会对人体和环境造成危害。西北地区污染程度虽不及中东部和沿海城市,但是随着人为活动的加剧,西北地区出现了不同程度的污染。新疆由于其独特的自然环境,干旱化趋势越来越明显,氮沉降增加会引起干旱半干旱区一系列的生态问题。本文选取准噶尔盆地作为研究对象,选取荒漠生态系统、城市交通区、高寒草原(背景观测点)三种类型,8个采样点利用雨量器和被动采样器采集大气活性氮干湿沉降样品,监测准噶尔盆地大气活性氮浓度,及沉降通量;同时选取乌鲁木齐采样点作为大气颗粒物采样点,利用四通道颗粒物采样器开展不同粒径颗粒物浓度和化学组分研究,为全面了解准噶尔盆地荒漠生态系统大气颗粒物和大气活性氮污染状况提供系统的数据资料。2015至2016年观测期间主要的研究结果如下:1. 城市交通区乌鲁木齐采样点颗粒物(PM2.5、PM5、PM10、TSP)年均浓度分别是:69.34、118.57、132.87和215.86 µg m-3。颗粒物浓度均呈现出冬季最高夏季最低的季节变化差异,PM2.5、PM10、TSP和PM5浓度变化趋势保持一致,均在2月份出现最大值,7月份出现最小值。城郊农田区采样点PM10年平均浓度为56.55 µg m-3,浓度最大和最小值分别出现在冬季和夏季,城郊农田采样点颗粒物浓度秋冬季高于春夏季,表现出明显的季节性差异。沙漠绿洲过渡带莫索湾采样点PM10年平均浓度为45.81 µg m-3, PM10浓度季节性差异不显著。2. 通过多点观测,准噶尔盆地一次性大气活性氮化合物(NH3和NO2)呈现出明显的时空变化差异。NH3的浓度以木垒草原化荒漠采样点最高(9.38 µg N m-3),以巴音布鲁克高寒草原点最低(2.2 µg N m-3);NO2的浓度以乌鲁木齐城市交通区采样点最高(25.58 µg N m-3),以巴音布鲁克高寒草原点最低(0.74 µg N m-3)。各活性氮在不同区域呈现出显著的季节差异特征。冬季pNH4+的浓度最高,夏季最低;pNO3-浓度与pNH4+浓度显著相关,表现出相同的季节变化趋势,即春夏季低,秋冬季高。3. 大气NH3浓度与颗粒态pNH4+浓度呈现一定程度的负相关,NO2浓度与颗粒态pNO3-均表现出显著的正相关关系;各采样点大气颗粒态pNH4+和颗粒态pNO3-均表现出极显著的正相关。4. 乌鲁木齐、阜康、莫索湾采样点氮沉降总量为28.64、26.77、6.4 kg N ha-1yr-1,干沉降通量分别为21.41、17.75、2.94 kg N ha-1yr-1,阜康、乌鲁木齐地区以NH4+-N沉降量为主,表现为晚秋至早春季节氮沉降量最大。乌鲁木齐、北沙窝沙漠、阜康、莫索湾、巴音布鲁克、精河采样点湿沉降通量分别为 7.23、6.69、11.13、3.46、6.82、 1.47 kg N ha-1yr-1,氮素湿沉降通量受离子质量浓度和降水量的双重因素的影响。
学科领域环境科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14919
专题研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
第一作者单位中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
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庄晓玲. 准噶尔盆地典型生态系统大气颗粒物特征及氮沉降研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2017.
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