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Eco-physiological Response of Cotton to Deficit Drip Irrigation Regimes on Hyperarid Southern Rim of Taklamakan Desert
Muhammad Shareef
Subtype博士
Thesis AdvisorProf. Dr. Fanjiang Zeng(曾凡江) ; Prof. Dr. Dongwei Gui(桂东伟)
2018-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree DisciplineDoctor of Philosophy (PhD)(理学博士)
Keyword极端干旱区 不同水分梯度 棉花 渗透物质 光合产物 水分利用效率 Extreme arid environment Different water gradients Cotton Osmotic substances photosynthesis water use efficiency
Abstract新疆是我国最大的棉花主产区,棉花产量占全国的 70%。 新疆南疆地区拥有得天独厚的光热条件,是全国棉花的适宜种植区和高产区。然而水资源短缺却是当地棉花种植的首要限制因子,如果荒漠绿洲中的水资源得到合理调配,会使当地棉花产量得以显著提升。目前,调亏灌溉技术已经开始在区域棉花种植中的得到逐步应用,但是调亏灌溉对不同生育期棉花生理生化指标和产量的影响机制,并不清楚,值得深入研究。因此,本研究将为干旱区棉花高产稳产机制研究提供重要的科学数据和理论依据,具有重要的理论意义和应用价值。本研究依托位于塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘的中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所策勒国家站的绿洲农田长期生态学实验场,通过随机区组实验设计的方法,设计四个不同水分处理梯度(100%、80%、60%和 40%, 每个处理四个重复),定量研究棉花在调亏滴灌引发的干旱胁迫中的生理和生化交互作用,优化调亏滴灌下的棉花水分利用。连续两年(2015-2016)的实验研究结果表明:(1)在 100%田间持水量的处理下,棉田的水分蒸散量为 1079 mm,而在 40%田间持水量的处理下,棉田的水分蒸散量为 510 mm。随着滴灌量的减少,棉花生长速率和清晨叶水势逐步下降。80%田间持水量处理的棉花光合作用、蒸腾作用和气孔导度在棉花现蕾期下降了 15%,而在随后的生育期中仅下降了 8%,而在 60%和 40%田间持水量处理中,棉花光合作用、蒸腾作用和气孔导度的下降更为剧烈。(2)调亏灌溉显著增加了棉花叶片中赤霉素、脯氨酸、总可溶性糖和钾离子的含量。即在土壤水分亏缺条件下,棉花生理渗透调解作用开始运行。平均而言,与 100%田间持水量处理相比,棉花在 80%、60%和 40%田间持水量下,分别积累了 37%、98%和155%的渗透调节物质。同时,棉花叶片表面气孔密度增大,孔径减小。此外,与 100%田间持水量处理相比,在 80%、60%和 40%田间持水量的处理中,棉花光合气体交换速率分别降低了 7%、32%和 52%。(3)在有限的供水条件下,棉花对光合同化产物分配的优先顺序为根>叶>果实,即棉花根冠比增加,而生殖生长受阻。此外,干旱胁迫会使棉桃密度、鲜重和棉绒产量显著降低。同时,水分胁迫显著影响光合产物在棉桃中的分配。在干旱胁迫的棉桃中,棉花将更多的光合产物分配在了种子里,而非棉花纤维中,从而降低了籽棉的产量和纤维的品质。80%田间持水量的棉花产量与 100%田间持水量处理相比减少了 13%。40%田间持水量的棉花籽棉产量为 2433 kg ha-1,而在 100%田间持水量中,籽棉产量为4376 kg ha-1。在不同灌溉处理中,最大灌溉用水效率和作物水分利用效率分别为 0.62kg m-3和 0.48 kg m-3,并随灌溉量的增加而减少。此外,棉花生长速率和生理特征与棉田蒸散量和灌溉量呈线性相关。受水分胁迫的棉花种子中淀粉、油脂和蛋白质含量、百粒种子的重量和种子活力显著降低。在后续年份(2016年和 2017年)的种子发芽试验表明,从调亏滴灌棉花中收获的棉花种子发芽率和幼苗生物量显著降低。综上所述,在干旱胁迫下,渗透调节物质在棉花叶片组织中富集,造成棉花光合气体交换量的下降,使得棉花植株适应了荒漠环境中的干旱胁迫。此外,以上结果还表明,在荒漠环境下,调亏滴灌是棉花适宜产量优化的有效手段及适宜的荒漠节水技术。但想要获得高质量的棉花纤维和棉籽,则应首选充分灌溉。然而,基于经济性评价结果表明,80%的田间持水量的灌溉,将提供棉花最佳的产量和净收益,并可节约20%的水,而 60%田间持水量处理虽然可以节约 40%的水,但产量和利润损失过大。当然,如果水资源足够,那么就应该进行 100%充分灌溉,以最大限度地提高棉花产量,并在沙漠绿洲上获得最大的净收益。
Other AbstractXinjiang is the largest cotton producing area in China, and its output of cotton accounts for70% of the country. The area of southern Xinjiang has unique light and heat conditions, whichmake it the most suitable cotton planting area with the highest cotton yield in the country. But,the critical regional water shortage and hyperaridity are the main reasons, limiting widespreadcotton cultivation on the desert-oasis. However, if the water resources are reasonably allocatedand water dearth is effectively managed, then the local and overall regional cotton yield canbe significantly improved. At present, the regulated deficit drip irrigation has begun to beapplied step by step in regional cotton plantation. Whereas, the implications of regulated deficitdrip irrigation on cotton physiological and biochemical indexes, and yield are not clear, whichdeserved further study. For that reason, this study will provide important scientific data andtheoretical basis for the research on the mechanism of high and stable yield of cotton in aridareas, which have important theoretical significance and application value.This study was conducted at southern edge of the Taklamakan desert on farmland area of CeleNational Station for Observation and Desert-Grassland Ecosystem Research, Xinjiang Instituteof Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Science, during two consecutive years (2015-2016), for quantitative analysis of cotton yield loss under drought stress, caused by deficit inirrigation, and physiological and biochemical interactions in the regulation and optimizationof deficit drip irrigation, and water use of cotton, using four deficit drip irrigation treatmentsbased on 100%, 80%, 60%, and 40% replenishment of depleted moisture from field capacity,through randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. The experimentalresults of two consecutive years show that:(1) Under 100% soil field capacity, the evapotranspiration in cotton field was 1079 mm, whileat 40% field capacity, the evapotranspiration in cotton field was 510 mm. Crop growth rateand pre-dawn leaf water potential (ψpd) successively declined with reducing irrigation amount.Photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E), and stomatal conductance (gs) of 80% treated cottondecreased by 15% at squaring stage and by only 8% at later growth stages while, holding watertreatment at 60% and 40% of field capacity, the decline in photosynthesis, transpiration andstomatal conductance of cotton was more intense. (2) Regulated deficit irrigation significantly increased the content of abscisic acid, proline, totalsoluble sugar and potassium ion in cotton leaves. That’s why, under the condition of soil waterdeficit, the physiological permeation mediation of cotton began to run. On average, comparedwith 100% field water holding capacity, cotton plants accumulated 37%, 98% and 155% moreosmotic adjustment substances at 80%, 60% and 40% field capacity, respectively. At the sametime, the stomatal density of cotton leaves increased and the pore size decreased. In addition,compared with 100% field capacity, the photosynthetic gas exchange rate of cotton decreasedby 7%, 32% and 52% in 80%, 60%, and 40% field capacity, respectively.(3) Under the limited water supply condition, the priority of cotton plants for the allocation ofphotosynthate products was root > leaf > fruit, that substantially increased the root-shoot ratioand hampered reproductive growth with the least adverse effects on 80% irrigated plants. Inaddition, due to drought stress, boll density, fresh weight, and lint yield decreased significantly.Moreover, it was also observed that the distribution of photosynthetic products in bolls wassignificantly affected, showing relatively more accumulation in developing seeds than fibers,which reduced the yield and quality of cotton fiber. The seed cotton yield at 80% field waterholding capacity decreased by 13% compared with that of 100% field water holding capacity.Whereas, the average seed cotton yield varied from 2433 kg ha-1 at 40% to 4376 kg ha-1 under100% soil field capacity.(4) In different irrigation treatments, the maximum irrigation water use efficiency and cropwater use efficiency were 0.62 kg m-3 and 0.48 kg m-3 respectively, which decreased with theincrease of irrigation volume. In addition, the growth rate and physiological characteristics ofcotton were linearly correlated with the evapotranspiration and irrigation amounts. The contentof starch, oil and protein, the weight of 100 seeds, and the vigor of seeds harvested from deficitirrigated cotton also decreased significantly. The seed germination tests in subsequent years(2016 and 2017) showed that the germination percentage and seedling biomass of cottonseedsharvested from regulated deficit drip irrigated cotton significantly decreased.Conclusively, under drought stress, the osmoregulatory substances were enriched in cotton leaftissues, resulting in decreased rate of photosynthetic gas exchange activities, which made thecotton plants to adapt drought stress in desert environment. In addition, the above results alsoshow that, deficit drip irrigation is an effective mean of optimizing cotton yield under the desert environment, and a suitable technology for ecological water saving. But, to obtain high qualitycotton fiber and cottonseeds, full irrigation should be the first choice. However, based on theeconomic evaluation results, 80% of the field capacity irrigation will provide the best yield andnet income with 20% water saving, while 60% field water capacity treatment can save 40% ofthe water, but the loss of production and profits is too large. Of course, if water resources areenough, then 100% irrigation should be carried out to maximize cotton yield and maximize netincome in desert oasis.
Subject Area植物生理学
Language英语
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14920
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Muhammad Shareef. Eco-physiological Response of Cotton to Deficit Drip Irrigation Regimes on Hyperarid Southern Rim of Taklamakan Desert[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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