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Thesis Advisor杨兆萍
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline理学博士
Keyword自然保护区 遥感 人类活动 生态安全 nature reserves remote sensing human activities ecological security
Abstract及时、准确地获取自然保护区整体性和区域性的生态环境信息并进行综合性评价,不仅可以对自然保护区的生态环境保护提供参考数据,还可对生态环境质量进行快速评价并掌握其变化趋势,为制定区域发展规划、生态环境保护措施提供决策依据,对保障各类生态系统的健康发展和资源可持续利用具有重要意义。随着卫星遥感技术的不断发展,实时生态环境监测成为可能,利用遥感技术可快速准确地开展生态环境质量评价,为区域生态环境的治理、改善以及发展规划的制定提供重要参考。本文以塔里木胡杨林自然保护区为例,通过遥感监测与统计指标的空间化采集方法,建立了适合于新疆自然保护区的多因子生态安全综合评价体系。同时,将人类活动干扰提取方法和生态安全评价方法在其它两个典型的自然保护区进行了验证评价,以期为区域生态系统综合经营与自然保护区旅游开发管理提供科技支撑。本文主要从以下方面进行研究:(1)自然保护区的人类活动信息高精度遥感信息提取技术方法。人类活动干扰分类采取面向对象与人工干预相结合的方法,以高分辨率卫星影像为数据源,结合历史土地利用分类数据和地面调查数据,利用人类活动类型的光谱特征、形状特征和纹理特征等建立基于高分数据的自然保护区人类活动干扰信息提取模型,重点提取保护区内工矿企业、城镇、居民点、农田的分布与面积信息,同时按照核心区、缓冲区和实验区分别进行统计,形成一套面向生态监管应用的自然保护区人类干扰情况监测技术方法。(2)自然保护区生态环境评价模型及其普适性验证。在分析塔里木胡杨自然保护区生态环境特征和主要影响因素的基础上,利用层次分析法以及“PSR 模型”构建了自然保护区生态安全评价指标体系及指标权重,分析了全国多个典型保护区影响生态安全的人为扰动,初步建立了方法学和指标体系。结合保护对象的类似性和评价体系的可能性,进一步分析了全国其他两个国家级自然保护区影响生态安全的人类活动扰动模式,为生态恢复治理方面提供借鉴可能。(3)新疆自然保护区人类活动遥感监测与生态安全评估系统。在人类活动提取和生态安全评价两部分内容的基础上,设计开发新疆自然保护区人类活动遥感监测与生态安全评估系统,以期提高生态监测与评估的时效性,实现生态环境评估从静态向动态的转变。(4)提出了自然保护区的保护和恢复治理措施。针对塔里木胡杨自然保护区现存的人类活动干扰产生的问题,评定国家级和省级保护地、建立分级保护和监测体系、开展“常态化”的生态输水、建立多级管理体系、启动生态移民工程、探索可储蓄管理模式、建立负责任的世界遗产探访机制等七条措施将会有效的改善自然保护区的生态环境问题。
Other AbstractRegional ecological environmental information collection and comprehensive assessmentscorrectly and timely can not only provide basic data for the ecological protection of NatureReserves (NR), but also offer a rapid assessment of the quality of the ecological environment andhold changing trends. It will become the basis for decision about the Planning of NR RegionalDevelopment and Eco-environment Protection, and for ensuring the healthy development ofvarious ecosystems types and the sustainable utilization of resources is of great significance.With the constant development of satellite remote sensing technology, real-time monitoringof the ecological systems has become possible. Using remote sensing technology, theeco-environment quality in NR can be quickly and accurately evaluated. Real-time monitoring ofthe ecological systems might able to offer reference in improving the ecological environment andmaking regional development planning.Taking the Tarim Huyang Nature Reserve as an example, this paper establishes a multi-factorecological security comprehensive evaluation framework which is suitable for the Xinjiang NatureReserve through the method of spatial index collection of remote sensing monitoring andstatistical indicators. At the same time, for the sake of providing scientific basis to thedevelopment of regional environmental laws, the extraction model of human activity interferenceand the assessment of ecological security have been verified and applied in other two typical NR.The main findings of this paper are as follows:(1) Developing a human activity information extraction methodology based on multi-sensorynature reserves.The classification of human activity interference adopted a combination way ofobject-oriented and manual intervention, used high-resolution satellite imagery as a data source,and combined historical land use classification data and ground survey data, and utilizes thespectral features, shape features, and texture features of human activity types. The human activityinformation extraction model in Nature Reserves mainly extract the information of industrial andmining enterprises, towns, residential areas and farmland in the protected area, then statisticsrespectively according to the core area, buffer zone, and test area.(2) Constructing the eco-environmental evaluation model and validating its universality.Based on the analysis of the ecological environment characteristics and main influencing factorsof Xinjiang NR, the AHP evaluation index system has been constructed with using the AHPmethod and the “PSR model”. The evaluation system includes a pressure layer, a status layer, anda response layer. Each layer has three evaluation indexes. Based on the causality relationshipbetween ecological safety index, evaluation index, and the theory of fuzzy comprehensiveevaluation, ecological security comprehensive index has been constructed based on score theecological security of Xinjiang NR and implement the comprehensive analysis of the drivingforces that restrict the development of ecological environment. Further analysis of the human disturbances that affected ecological security in the other three typical protected areas in thecountry.(3) Establishing remote sensing monitoring of human activities and ecological securityevaluation system in Xinjiang NR. Based on the results of human activities extraction andecological security assessment, it is necessary to design the system framework based on the“common platform+modular system”. Relying on the basic hardware and software supportplatforms, satellite number access, preprocessing subsystems and natural protection has beendeveloped. Regional human activity remote sensing monitoring, ecological environmentassessment, GIS display and analysis subsystem, the remote sensing monitoring and ecologicalsecurity assessment system for human activities in Xinjiang Nature Reserve has been designed anddeveloped, in the hope of improving the timeliness of ecological monitoring and assessment. Itcould achieve ecological environmental assessment transition from static to dynamic.(4) Proposing measures for protecting, restoring and governing of Nature Reserves. Based onthe results of human activity information extraction methodology, co-environmental evaluationmodel, remote sensing monitoring of human activities and ecological security evaluation system,this paper proposes conservation and restoration management measures for NR.To address theexisting problems of human activity disturbance in the Tarim Huyang Nature Reserve, to assessnational and provincial protected areas and to establish graded protection and monitoring systems,launching regular ecological water transport, establishing multi-level management systems, andrunning ecological migration engineering, exploring the a manageable savings management model,and establishing a responsible world heritage visiting mechanism, will effectively improve theecological environment of NR.
Subject Area人文地理学
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
周婵. 自然保护区人类活动遥感监测与生态安全评估研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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