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北山羊(Capra sibirica)集群特征及其对警戒行为的影响
韩雷
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor杨维康
2018-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword北山羊 集群特征 性别 生活史 警戒行为 Siberian ibex Grouping patterns sex Life history vigilance behaviour
Abstract许多动物具有集群的习性,动物能够通过集群降低捕食风险、提高采食成效,进而提高个体适合度,但集群同时也会加剧个体对有限资源的竞争、增加个体间的疾病传染风险等。警戒是动物发现捕食者、降低捕食风险,提高生存几率的重要手段。作者于 2014 年 10 月至 2017 年 9 月,采用样线法和焦点动物取样法采集数据, 研究了新疆天山中部乌鲁木齐河源区北山羊(Capra sibirica) 的集群特征与警戒行为。 将北山羊群划分为雄性群、雌幼群、混合群和羊等 4 个类型,揭示了北山羊不同群类型群大小的月变化模式,以及不同群类型出现频率。 分析了群大小、群类型、性别、 不同生活史阶段、年龄及其交互作用对北山羊警戒行为的影响。本研究进一步丰富了与动物集群和警戒行为相关的理论和假说,同时也为北山羊的管理和保护提供科学指导。研究结果如下:(1)北山羊集群特征本研究共观察到北山羊 3406 群/次,合计 38118 只/次。北山羊多集小群,其群大小呈右偏态分布,由 1-10 只个体组成的群数量最多,达到 65.50%。 但大多数北山羊个体栖息于大群中, 小群中(1-10 只) 的个体仅占 28.41%。 北山羊年平均群大小为 26.01 ± 0.13 只, 5 月最大, 7 月最小。 其中雌幼群在 6 月达到最大, 12 月最小;雄性群在 9 月达到最大,在食物匮乏期保持在较低水平; 混合群在 5 月达到最大, 7 月最小。 混合群群大小(35.26 ± 0.24 只)显著高于雄性群(19.837 ± 0.32 只)和雌幼群(18.91 ± 0.11 只)。 从全年来看,雌幼群出现的频率最高(52.64%),其次为混合群(26.92%)、雄性群(12.74%)和独羊(7.7%)。在发情期(11-12 月),混合群出现频率达到最高, 之后逐渐下降。(2) 集群特征对北山羊警戒行为的影响本研究共观察北山羊 596 群次,群大小为 1-59 只。北山羊平均警戒时间比例为 4.84 ± 0.11%(0 - 37.67%)。 不同生活史阶段北山羊警戒时间比例差异显著(t = 20.03, P < 0.01),发情期最高, 食物匮乏期次之,育幼期和食物丰富期最低。总体而言,雌性个体警戒时间比例高于雄性(t = 11.03, P < 0.01),发情期除外。群体效应对北山羊警戒行为具有显著影响, 警戒时间比例随群增大而降低(t = -23.95, P < 0.01)。 不同群类型中的个体警戒时间比例差异显著(t = 18.62, P < 0.01),混合群中的个体警戒时间比例与雌幼群中个体相似, 二者均高于雄性群。 北山羊平均警戒频率为 3.18 ± 0.07 次/10 min(0 - 30 次/10 min)。 不同生活史阶段北山羊警戒频率差异显著(t = 16.23, P < 0.01),发情期最高, 食物匮乏期次之,育幼期和食物丰富期最低。 除发情期,其它阶段雌性个体警戒频率均高于雄性。 北山羊警戒频率与群大小呈负相关(t = -31.19, P < 0.01)。 雄性北山羊年龄对其警戒频率具有显著影响, 随年龄增长雄羊警戒频率降低(t = -5.09, P < 0.05)。 不同群类型中的北山羊个体警戒频率差异显著(t = 31.54, P < 0.05), 混合群中个体警戒频率与雌幼群中个体相似, 二者均高于雄性群中个体。 北山羊平均每次警戒持续时间为 7.50 ± 0.12 s(0 - 12 s)。 不同生活史阶段北山羊平均每次警戒持续时间差异显著(t = 19.70, P < 0.01), 食物丰富期最长,育幼期最短。 总体而言,雄性与雌性个体平均每次警戒持续时间差异不显著(t = 3.81, P > 0.05),发情期雄性高于雌性,育幼期雌性高于雄性。 研究表明, 捕食风险和生活史是造成北山羊雌雄两性警戒水平差异的主要原因。
Other AbstractMany ungulates have the habit to live in groups. There are many benefits of groupliving, for example, reducing predation, improving foraging success, thus enhance thefitness. Whereas living in groups can also lead to the potential costs of increasingcompetition for limit resources, and infection by pathogens. Vigilance is an importantbehaviour for animals to find potential predators, reduce the risk of predation, and thusincrease the chance of survival. From October 2014 to September 2017, the linesampling method and the focal animal sampling method were used to collect data, andthe grouping patterns and vigilance behaviour of the Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica)were studied in the middle Tianshan mountains, Xinjiang, China. The group of Siberianibex were divided into four types: male groups, nursery groups, mixed groups andsolitary. The monthly grouping patterns of Siberian ibex and its’ vary in relation todifferent group types between different months, and the frequency of occurrence ofeach group type in different months were studied. The effects of group size, group type,sex, different life history period, age and their interaction on the vigilance wereanalyzed. This study can enrich the relevant theories and hypotheses of wildlifegrouping patterns and vigilance behaviour, and also provide guidance for themanagement and conservation of Siberian ibex. The results of the study are as follows:(1) Grouping patterns of Siberian ibexA total of 3406 groups and 38118 individuals were observed. Siberian ibex preferstay in small groups (1-10 individuals), which forming 65.50% of all sighted groups,and the distribution of group size was right-skewed. However, regarding to thedistribution of individuals. Siberian ibex gathers into larger groups, with only 28.41%individuals living in small groups. In general, the mean crowding of Siberian ibex was26.01 ± 0.13, which was the largest in May and then decreased to the smallest in July.Mean crowding were largest in June and smallest in December for nursery groups, andlargest in September and smallest in December for male groups, and largest in May andsmallest in July for mixed groups. The mean crowding of the mixed groups (35.26 ±0.24) was significantly higher than that of the male groups (19.837 ± 0.32) and thenursery groups (18.91 ± 0.11). In the whole year, the nursery groups were mostfrequently observed (52.64%), and followed by mixed groups (26.92%), male groups(12.74%) and solitary (7.7%). The frequency of occurrence of mixed groups reachedthe highest during the rut (November and December), and then gradually decreasedwith the finish of rut period.(2) Effects of group characteristics on vigilance behaviour of Siberian ibexA total of 596 groups of Siberian ibex were observed in this study, and with agroup size ranging from 1 to 59. The mean proportion time spent vigilance was 4.84 ±0.11%, ranged from 0% to 37.67%. Vigilance time of Siberian ibex varied with differentlife history period (t = 20.03, P < 0.01), which was the highest in rut, followed by foodshortage period, nursery season and food rich period. Overall, females spent more timeon vigilance than males (t = 11.03, P < 0.01), but males were more vigilant during therut. There was a clear decrease in the proportion of vigilance time with group size inSiberian ibex (t = -23.95, P < 0.01). Siberian ibex spent different time on vigilancewhen staying in different group types (t = 18.62, P < 0.01); they showed similar vigilanttime in nursery groups and mixed groups, it was however, higher than male groups. Themean vigilant frequency of Siberian ibex was 3.18 ± 0.07 times/10 min, ranged from 0to 30 times. Vigilant frequency of Siberian ibex was varied with different life historyperiod (t = 16.23, P < 0.01); they showed the highest vigilant frequency during rutseason, followed by food shortage period, and the lowest in nursery season and foodrich period. Females showed more vigilant frequency than males outside the rut. Thevigilant frequency was negatively correlated with the group size in Siberian ibex (t = -31.19, P < 0.01). In addition, the vigilant frequency decreased with males’ age, i.e. oldermales vigilant less times than younger ones. The number of vigilance per unit time wasaffected by the group type: they vigilance more frequent in nursery groups and in mixedgroups than male groups. Mean vigilant duration was 7.50 ± 0.12 s, and ranged from 0s to 12 s. Vigilant duration of Siberian ibex was also varied with different life historyperiod (t = 19.70, P < 0.01), reaching the highest duration in food rich period, and thelowest in nursery season. In general, males and females have a similar mean duration of each vigilant bout (t = 3.81, P > 0.05), but males were more vigilant than femalesduring the rut season, and females were more vigilant than males during the nurseseason. Predation risk and physiological cycle may be the main reasons for thedifference of vigilance level of males and females.
Subject Area生态学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14966
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
韩雷. 北山羊(Capra sibirica)集群特征及其对警戒行为的影响[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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