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克拉玛依城市外围梭梭与柽柳群落退化的主导因子分析
韩鹏冉
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor严成
2018-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword克拉玛依城市外围 群落退化 环境因子 恢复对策 Karamay city periphery Community degradation Environmental factors Recovery countermeasures
Abstract本文通过对克拉玛依城市外围区域的梭梭与柽柳群落不同退化程度的物种组成、生物多样性指数等特征及降水、土壤、地下水等环境因子进行调查。运用主成分分析法,阐明影响梭梭与柽柳群落退化的主导环境因子, 并进行恢复对策分析,为以后克拉玛依市外围荒漠植物群落生态恢复提供科学依据和技术支撑。研究结果如下:(1) 研究区域的梭梭和柽柳群落的物种组成以灌木和草本为主,植物种类较少。随着退化程度的加深,草本植物重要值逐渐减小,灌木植物重要值逐渐增大,群落生物多样性减少。在重度退化程度几乎无草本,仅存严重衰败的梭梭、柽柳;(2)影响梭梭群落退化的主导环境因子为土壤质地、土壤总盐含量和土壤有机质含量。土壤总盐增加及土壤有机质减少,会导致梭梭群落物种组成趋向单一,群落多样性减少。土壤总盐及土壤有机质条件相同时,砂土区梭梭群落幼苗较多,壤土区重度退化程度开始出现无叶假木贼更新,植被由梭梭群落向无叶假木贼群落演替;(3)影响柽柳群落退化的主导环境因子为地下水埋深、地下水矿化度。随着地下水位降低及地下水矿化度增加,柽柳群落物种种类及数量逐渐减少,多样性逐渐减少,仅在邻近湿地及洪水漫溢区域有部分柽柳幼苗。而在重度退化程度区域,出现部分梭梭更新幼苗,植被由柽柳群落向梭梭群落演替;(4)研究区梭梭群落生态恢复应以提升盖度为重点,参考梭梭群落不同区域的水分条件、土壤质地差异,在中度、重度退化区域,选取梭梭进行补水种植,对于土壤盐分含量过高区域,可选取盐穗木进行种植。未退化及轻度区域灌溉补水恢复梭梭盖度。柽柳群落生态恢复应以保持水土为重点,中度、轻度退化区域可考虑利用洪水资源进行柽柳群落恢复。在重度退化区域,考虑到柽柳群落开始向梭梭群落演替的趋势,恢复植物可选用梭梭,利用城市中水资源进行补水种植。
Other AbstractThis article investigated the characters of community composition, coveragechange, diversity index, and the environmental factors about soil, groundwater andprecipitation of the Haloxylon ammodendron and Tamarix ramosissima community indifferent degrees of degradation. The principal component analysis method isadopted to study the dominant factors and recovery countermeasures aboutH.ammodendron and T.ramosissima community. This study will provide a scientificbasis for Karamay desert plants ecological restoration in the future. Themain results are as follows.(1) The species composition were single, mainly composed with shrubs andherbs in the H.ammodendron and T.ramosissima community. Because of the degree ofdegradation increased, the proportion of herbaceous plants decreased gradually, shrubplants increased gradually, and the community biodiversity decreased. There were fewherbs in the severe degradation stage, except H. ammodendron and T. ramosissimasurvived.(2) Soil texture, soil total salt content and soil organic matter content are theleading environmental factors that affect the degradation of the H. ammodendroncommunity. The decrease of precipitation and the increase of total soil salt led tospecies composition single and decrease of diversity. There were more seedlings inthe sand than doras, under the same conditions. The Anabasisaphylla begin to updatein the severe degenerative stage.(3) The dominant factors about T. ramosissima community degradation weregroundwater depth and mineralization of groundwater. The increase of ground waterlevel and salinity made the species composition of the T. ramosissima communitymore single, and the coverage and diversity gradually decrease. In the adjacentwetland and flood overflow area, some seedlings were regenerated of the T.ramosissima community. The H.ammodendron seedlings began to appear in thesevere degradation stage. It’s replaced by H.ammodendron community.(4) The ecological restoration of the H.ammodendron community should befocused on improving vegetation coverage. Refer to the precipitation condition ofH.ammodendron community in different areas. The ecological restoration should bewater replenishment supplement moisture, and plant in in severe and moderatedegraded areas. According to the difference of soil texture, different projectconstruction and planting measures were selected. In the area of high soil salinity,Halostachys caspica can be used for planting. The ecological restoration for T.ramosissima community should emphasis on water and soil conservation in the studyarea. Moderate and mildly degraded areas may consider the use of flood resources forcommunity recovery. In severely degraded areas, the restoration of plants can beselected H.ammodendron by water resources.
Subject Area植物学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14967
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
韩鹏冉. 克拉玛依城市外围梭梭与柽柳群落退化的主导因子分析[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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