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玛纳斯河流域两种典型土地利用变化分析
贺可
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor吴世新
2018-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword土地经营管理模式 土地利用变化 景观格局 新疆生产建设兵团 玛纳斯河流域 land use model management model comparative analysis landscape pattern Manas River Basin
Abstract新疆拥有生产建设兵团(简称兵团)和地方政府(简称地方)管辖的两种土地经营管理模式,不同管理模式下人类活动方式存在显著差异,而人类活动方式的差异将直接导致土地利用变化显著不同,对两种管理模式下长时间序列的土地利用变化研究有助于对不同人类活动方式对土地利用及景观格局变化的影响。本文以新疆玛纳斯河流域为研究区,以流域内兵团和地方管辖区为研究对象。基于 1972 年至 2015 年 Landsat-MSS、 Landsat-TM、 CBERS-02B 及 Landsat-OLI遥感影像数据得到玛纳斯河流域近 40 年 6 期土地利用数据集。分别计算 20 世纪70 年代到 2015 年近 40 年来 5 个研究时段内,兵团、地方土地利用强度、均衡度、动态变化度等各项土地利用指数,以及景观尺度、类型尺度上的各项景观格局指数。利用上述各项指数对兵团与地方土地利用变化状况进行对比分析与定量评估,得到兵团和地方在土地利用时空变化和景观格局时空变化过程中的差异性结果。结合兵团与地方在行政体制、土地属性、水资源管理、开垦背景条件以及经营管理政策的不同,分析得到造成兵团和地方土地利用变化程度和景观格局存在显著差异的主要原因在于兵团和地方土地经营管理模式的不同。研究表明:(1)近 40 年间,兵团和地方土地利用程度发生激烈变化,且其变化过程具有显著差异, 差异主要体现在耕地类型和城乡居民工矿用地类型的变化上。兵团的耕地面积变化更为显著,耕地面积总共增加 1900.3km2,面积提升率为 52.14%。地方建设用地变化更为显著, 面积增加 134.83km2,提升率为 92.09%。(2)兵团和地方土地利用强度随时间变化迅速,且兵团和地方存在显著差异。 20 世纪 70 年代至90 年代兵团土地利用强度低于地方; 90 年代兵团土地利用程度随时间迅速提升,90 年代末期兵团土地利用强度逐步赶超地方; 2000 年~2015 年兵团土地利用强度显著强于地方。(3)通过各项景观指数对比分析可知,兵团景观趋于集中连片,向统一化方向发展;地方景观表现为趋于破碎,有向分散化方向的趋势。地方实行小规模自主经营模式,地块规模有限,景观斑块间破碎度较高,各景观类型发展较均衡;而兵团实行大规模集中化统一管理的土地利用模式,土地整合频率较高,地块不断集中,景观格局趋于简单。(4)兵团与地方土地利用和景观格局时空变化过程存在显著差异的主要原因在于兵团与地方土地经营管理模式的不同,主要是因为不同管理模式下土地权属、水资源管理、行政体制、土地的开垦背景条件,特别是管理政策的不同。对比分析兵团大规模集约式土地经营模式和地方农用土地家庭承包责任制式土地经营模式下土地利用变化过程及景观格局的差异,对认识玛纳斯河流域乃至整个新疆长期以来的土地利用演变过程,以及不同人类活动方式对土地利用的影响意义重大。
Other AbstractXinjiang has two basic management modes, ―farm management mode‖developmented by Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps and ―local mode‖formed by the local governments. There are significant differences in the ways ofhuman activities under different management modes, and the different ways of humanactivities will directly make the difference in land use change. The study of land usechange under the long time series of two management models is helpful to understandthe influence of different human activities on land use. The paper takes the ManasRiver Basin of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region as the research area, taking thearmy corps and the local jurisdiction area as an example. Based on Landsat-MSS,Landsat-TM, CBERS-02B and Landsat-OLI remote sensing image data from 1972 to2015, we collected 6 land use data sets in Manas River Basin in recent 40 years. Theland use index and landscape pattern index of 1970s~1990s and 1990s~2000,2000~2005, 2005~2010 and 2010~2015 in 5 research periods were calculatedrespectively. The results of the above indices are used to compare and analyze thesituation of land use change of the corps and the local areas. The difference betweenthe process of land use change and the changing process of landscape pattern withtime is obtained. We further analyzed and compared the differences between the corpsand the local in the reclamation background and land use management mode, and gotthe reason that the difference between the land use change degree and the landscapepattern of the Corps is different from the local land management mode.The results are as follows: ①In recent 40 years, the land use degree of corps andlocal areas has changed dramatically, and the process of land use change hassignificant difference. The difference of intensity of land use change is mainlymanifested by the difference of agricultural land and construction land. The cultivatedarea of the Corps changed more significantly, the area of cultivated land increased by1900.3km2, and the area promotion rate was 52.14%. The change of localconstruction land is more significant, the construction land is increased by 134.83km2,and the rate of promotion is 92.09%. ②The land use intensity of the corps and localareas has changed rapidly with time, and there are significant differences between thecorps and the local areas. From 1970s to 1990s, the Corps of land use intensity islower than the local Corps; after 1990s the land use degree with time increased rapidly,in late 1990s, land use intensity to catch up with the local Corps; significantlystronger than the local land use intensity from 2000 to 2015 the corps.③ Through thecomparative analysis of various landscape indices, we can get that the Corpslandscape tends to be concentrated and United, and the local landscape tends to befragmented and decentralized. Different from the local small-scale autonomousoperation mode, the scale of the plots is limited and the fragmentation degree isrelatively high. The mass land centralized management mode of land use is highlyconcentrated, the land consolidation frequency is relatively high, the plots arecontinuously concentrated, and the landscape pattern tends to be simple.④The mainreasons for the significant difference in the degree of land use change and landscapepattern between the corps and the local land are the different modes of landmanagement and management of the corps and the local land. Comparativelyanalyzing the difference of land use change process and landscape pattern underdifferent management modes is of great significance for understanding the long-termevolution of land use and the influence of different human activities on land use inManas River Basin, especially in Xinjiang.
Subject Area地图学与地理信息系统
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14968
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
贺可. 玛纳斯河流域两种典型土地利用变化分析[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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