EGI OpenIR  > 研究系统  > 荒漠环境研究室
策勒绿洲典型经济林种树干液流特征及生产水足迹研究
金谦
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor高霄鹏 ; 桂东伟
2018-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline工程硕士
Keyword经济林 树干液流 水量平衡 蒸散发 水足迹 Economic forest Sap flow Water balance Evapotranspiration Water footprint
Abstract塔里木盆地南缘是新疆绿洲的主要分布区域, 绿洲内部传统经济作物和经济林分布广泛。 近些年在经济利益的驱使下,塔南地区农业种植结构正在由传统农作物向经济林果的转变,这导致绿洲农业水资源消耗出现新的变化特征。因此,为了维持绿洲农业可持续发展,需要对新转变下绿洲农业的耗水规律及其特征进行研究。 通过掌握绿洲农业水资源的耗散规律实现量入为出, 对绿洲农业水资源的分配管理以及保持绿洲的稳定性有重要意义。本研究依托策勒国家站,以当地主要经济树种核桃(Juglandis) 以及矮化红枣(Ziziphus jujuba Mill) 为研究对象, 利用 TDP 热扩散探针技术,对核桃以及矮化红枣的液流活动进行长期监测, 研究液流变化特征; 同时记录试验地的环境因子, 分析两种果树的树干液流对环境因子的响应;结合水量平衡方程对果树在田间尺度的蒸散发耗水量进行推算, 并计算两种果树的生产水足迹。 通过对典型果树的耗水特征及生产的水足迹揭示, 可以为绿洲农业水资源优化配置提供理论及应用支撑。 主要结果如下:1)两种果树树干液流活动有明显的昼夜与季节特征。 树干液流活动白天强烈,晚上维持较低水平,呈现“日单峰” 变化曲线; 两种果树在夏季的液流活动最强烈,其次是春季,秋季则相对平稳。在三种主要影响树干液流的环境因子中,太阳辐射强度以及大气温度与液流活动之间成正比,相对湿度与之成反比; 对果树的树干液流影响最大的环境因子分别是太阳辐射强度、 大气温度、 相对湿度。2) 在晴天、 雨天以及沙尘天气条件下,矮化红枣树干液流日累积量分别为6.9、 4.07 以及 6.6kg; 核桃树干液流日累积量分别为 32.2、 29.7 以及 32.4kg。在春季、 夏季以及秋季不同的三个时期,矮化红枣在植株尺度上的蒸腾耗水量分别为 2.6、 6.36 以及 3.96kg;核桃在植株尺度上的蒸腾耗水量分别是 14.8、 29.6 以及 13.6kg。 根据果树在植株尺度蒸腾耗水量与其胸径之间的换算关系,外推计算得到矮化红枣树在田间尺度上的年均蒸腾耗水量为 342.7m³/亩, 核桃树在田间尺度上的年均蒸腾耗水量是 87.23m³/亩。3)基于水量平衡方法结合水足迹计算理论,计算得到一个生长期内, 基于实际耗水量的核桃生产水足迹为 2.43m³/kg,基于总需水量的核桃生产水足迹为1.90m³/kg; 基于实际耗水量的红枣生产水足迹为 4.31m³/kg,基于总需水量的红枣生产水足迹为 3.66m³/kg。与棉花、玉米等传统作物的生产水足迹相比,核桃以及矮化红枣的种植优势并不明显。
Other AbstractThe main distribution area of Oasis in Xinjiang is in the southern part of theTarim Basin. Within the Oasis, both traditional crops and economic forests are widelydistributed. During the past years, agriculture in this region has shifted fromtraditional crops to economic forests, driven by some economic benefits, and this hasled to changes in agricultural water consumption. Therefore, to develop and maintaina sustainable agriculture, it is important to find out the level of water consumption byeconomic forests in this region. This experiment was carried out at Cele NationalStation, and Red Date (Ziziphus zizyphus) and Walnut (Juglans regia) were chosen asthe research plants. We recorded the long-term sap flow of these plants using thethermal diffusion probe (TDP) technology. We also recorded the environmentalfactors for every experimental plot to find the effect of environmental factors to sapflow. Furthermore, we calculated the water consumption rate throughevapotranspiration by the two economic forests. This was achieved by combining thewater balance equations, and then calculate the production water footprint for the twoforests. By revealing the features of water consumption and production footprint ofthese economic forests, we can provide theoretical and practical information for theoptimization of agricultural water resource allocation.The main results for this study are: 1) The sap flow of two fruit trees was foundto have noticeable diurnal and seasonal characteristics. The sap flow was high duringthe day and low during the night, portraying a "unimodal" curve. The sap flow for thetwo fruit trees was strongest in summer, followed by spring, while it was relativelystable in autumn. In addition, sap flow was found to be directly proportional to solarradiation intensity and atmospheric temperature, but it was inversely proportional torelative humidity. The environmental factors that have the greatest influence on thesap flow of these fruit trees were the solar radiation intensity, atmospherictemperature and relative humidity.2) The daily cumulative amounts of sap flow were 6.9, 4.07, and 6.6 kg for dwarfRed dates; 32.2, 29.7, and 32.4 kg for Walnut during the sunny, rainy, and sand-dustydays, respectively. In different times of the year, i.e., spring, summer and autumn, thewater consumption through transpiration by dwarf Red dates on a plant scale was 2.6,6.36 and 3.96 kg, respectively while that of Walnut was 14.8 and 29.6 and 13.6kg,respectively. Based on the conversion relationship between the transpiration waterconsumption of the fruit trees and the DBH at the plant scale, the average annualtranspiration water consumption of dwarf Red date at field scale was 5140.5 m3/hawhereas that of Walnut was1308.45m3/ha.3) Based on the water balance method, combined with the water footprintcalculation theory, we found that during the growing season, the actual waterconsumption for Walnut production is 2.43m3/kg, and its production water footprintbased on the total water demand is 1.90m3/kg. For the Red date, the actual waterconsumption is 4.31m3/kg while the production water footprint based on the totalwater requirement is 3.66m3/kg. Compared with the production water footprint oftraditional crops and economic forests, dates and walnuts have no obvious advantageover Cotton and Corn.
Subject Area环境工程
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14971
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
金谦. 策勒绿洲典型经济林种树干液流特征及生产水足迹研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[金谦]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[金谦]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[金谦]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.