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荒漠藓类结皮斑块效应对土壤养分的影响
李茜倩
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张元明
2018-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword藓类结皮 边缘效应 面积效应 土壤养分 最小数据集法 土壤质量评价 土壤质量指数 灰色关联分析 moss crust patch edge effect size effect soil nutrients MDS Soil quality assessment Soil quality index grey relation analysis
Abstract由于干旱荒漠生态系统土壤资源呈现高度异质性, 植被分布斑块化成为该生态系统的一种普遍现象。 藓类结皮是荒漠地表生物土壤结皮的主要类型之一,自然状态下通常呈现出典型的斑块状分布特征。斑块作为苔藓结皮发挥生态功能的基本单元,对土壤生态过程具有深刻的影响。 荒漠地表生物结皮对土壤肥力的保持具有重要作用, 与土壤理化性质、 土壤酶、微生物生物量与土壤肥力及活性密切相关, 然而大多关于生物结皮与土壤养分的报道多将生物结皮作为统一的整体进行采样和研究,而斑块效应(边缘效应、面积效应)下生物结皮层土壤的养分如何分布,相关的研究还鲜见报道。本研究以古尔班通古特沙漠藓类结皮斑块为研究对象,通过测定斑块内土壤理化性质、酶活性、微生物生物量碳氮等指标,比较藓类结皮层土壤在斑块效应(边缘效应、 面积效应)下土壤特性的变化特征。并对藓类结皮层土壤在边缘效应及面积效应下对土壤养分进行综合评定,为深入了解荒漠生态系统藓类结皮的生态功能提供依据。 本文主要研究结果:1、藓类结皮斑块边缘效应对土壤养分的影响。 藓类结皮斑块边缘圈层的土壤有机质(SOM)、全氮(TN)、全钾(TK)、脲酶(UE)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、微生物生物量碳(SMBC)、微生物生物量氮(SMBN)、 颜色平均变化率(AWCD)均显著低于内部两个圈层, 而全磷(TP)、速效氮(AN)、速效磷(AP)、速效钾(AK)、 pH 值、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、蔗糖酶(SC)、 β-葡萄糖苷酶(β-GC)等指标均不受边缘效应的影响,在三个圈层间无显著差异。同时,土壤各项指标在斑块内部两个圈层均无显著差异。最小数集法对边缘效应下土壤质量的综合评价结果表明: 适用的最小数据集(MDS)包括: SOM、 AK、 AP、 ALP 及 β-GC; 藓类结皮斑块的土壤质量指数(SQI)显示从中心至边缘有逐渐降低的趋势, 内部两个圈层的养分无显著差异, 且中心圈层土壤质量指数(0.61±0.53)显著高于边缘圈层(0.41±0.03); 灰色关联度分析法定量分析表明: 藓类结皮斑块三个圈层土壤养分的关联度值依次为:中心圈层(0.65)>中间圈层(0.59)>边缘圈层(0.47), 藓类结皮斑块结皮层的土壤养分从中心至边缘逐渐降低。2、藓类结皮斑块面积效应对土壤养分的影响。 藓类结皮斑块结皮层的土壤SOM、 TN、 AP 及土壤酶活性、微生物生物量总体上表现为随着藓类结皮斑块面积的增大, 其含量也逐渐增高,但当面积达到一定大小时,各指标的含量增加缓慢甚至有所降低, 而 TP、 TK 含量及 pH 值变化不大。 最小数集法和灰色关联度综合性分析表明, 不同面积大小的土壤质量指数和关联度总体表现为随着面积的增大,土壤质量指数和关联度升高的趋势, 即面积较大的藓类结皮斑块对土壤养分的积累作用越显著。本研究证实了藓类结皮微斑块具有同植被景观斑块相似的斑块效应,表现在边缘效应和面积效应两方面,使荒漠地表土壤生物和非生物要素分布的空间异质性增强,从而影响荒漠生态系统养分循环过程。
Other AbstractPatchiness is regarded as a common phenomenon of arid and semi-arid regiondue to high heterogeneity. Moss crust, one of the main types of biological soil crustsin desert ecosystems, mainly occurred in the form of patches with different sizes. Asthe basic unit of ecological function of moss crusts, the patches have a profoundimpact on the ecological processes with the surrounding environment. As an engineerin the desert ecosystem of arid and semi-arid region, the biological crust has animportant effect on soil fertility preservation. Soil physical and chemical properties,soil enzymes, microbial biomass are closely related to soil fertility. Most of therelationships between biological crust and soil nutrients have been studied as a unifiedwhole. However, little is known about the distribution of soil nutrients under the patcheffect (edge effect and area effect). To understanding the ecological function of mosscrust in the desert ecosystem., the soil nutrients under the edge effect and area effectwas evaluated comprehensively, and the main results of this paper are as follows:1. Edge effect of moss crust patch on soil nutrients. Soil organic matter, totalnitrogen, total potassium, urease, catalase, microbial biomass C and microbialbiomass N were significantly influenced by the edge effect, with higher in center andmiddle circle and less in the edge one. There was no significant difference of othersoil indicators in three circles. A minimum data set (MDS) for soil fertility qualityevaluation was defined and developed with the principal component analysis andcorrelation analysis, which indicated that a majority of the soil characteristics withcenter circle and middle circle were better than soil characteristics with edge circle,and the soil quality of center is best. soil organic matter(SOM), availablephosphorus(AP), available potassium(AK), acid phosphatase(ALP),β-glucosidase(β-GC), was selected as the minimum data set (MDS). The soil qualityindex (SQI) showed that soil quality among the three circles with moss patch rangedfrom 0.41 to 0.61 and the values were significantly higher in center circle than in middle circle and edge circle. The data of soil fertility was analyzed quantitatively bygrey relational analysis, and ranked by correlation degrees comprehensively. Theresults showed that: The order of soil fertility in three circle with moss crust patchunder the edge effect was center circle (0.65)>middle circle (0.59)>edge circle (0.47).We conclude that the soil nutrients of moss crust patches present a trend of decreasefrom the center to edge.2. Area effect of moss crust patch on soil nutrients. The characteristics of the soilin the moss crust were different with different areas. The contents of soil SOM, TN,AP and soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass in the mosses crust patches are asfollows: with the increase of area of moss crust patch, the content of SOM, TN, APand soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass increased gradually, but when thearea reaches a certain size, the content increased slowly and even decreases, while thecontent of TP, TK and pH did not change much. (1) A minimum data set(MDS) forsoil fertility quality evaluation was defined and developed with the principalcomponent analysis and correlation analysis, which indicated that a majority of thesoil characteristics with big area were higher than soil nutrients with small area. SOM,TN, TP, AK, UE, SC, CAT, ALP and pH, was selected as the minimum data set(MDS). After the euclidean clustering was performed on the soil quality index ofdifferent areas obtained, overall performance for different size of SQI along with therising of the area, the larger the moss crust patch area was, the higher SQI of differentsize moss crust present. The data of soil nutrients was analyzed quantitatively by greyrelational analysis and grey clustering analysis for different size of patches of mossescrust. The results showed that: The correlation degree of soil nutrients was higherwith big area moss patch than small area moss patch. Minimum data set method andthe grey correlation analysis all showed that the larger area with moss crust patch, themore significant effect on the accumulation of soil nutrients.This study confirmed that the micro patchs (moss crust patch) were similar to thevegetation landscape patches effect, manifested in two aspects of edge effect and areaeffect, and enhanced the spatial heterogeneity of desert surface soil biological andnon-biological factors distribution of spatial heterogeneity, which affects desert ecosystem nutrient cycling process.
Subject Area植物学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14972
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李茜倩. 荒漠藓类结皮斑块效应对土壤养分的影响[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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