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新疆阿尔泰山鸟类多样性研究
刘旭
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor马鸣
2018-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword阿尔泰山 鸟类种类 区系成分 多样性指数 相似性指数 The Altai Mountains Avian Species Floristic Element Avian Diversity Indices Similarity Index
Abstract阿尔泰山地区的鸟类研究工作虽然一直都在进行,但是缺乏对该地区鸟类多样性的整体评价。本研究的目的在于利用多样性指数评估该地区的鸟类多样性,为科学有效的监测与保护该地区的生物多样性提供可靠的依据。2015~2017年间,采用样线法与样点法在阿尔泰山进行实地野外调查,并结合相关文献给出该地区的鸟类名录。基于野外调查数据进行优势种分析、多样性分析、相似性分析。通过t检验和单因素方差分析(One-way ANOVA)对分析结果进行显著性检验。并得出以下主要结论:阿尔泰山地区共有鸟类21目,63科,176属,358种。居留型以夏候鸟为主,共172种;留鸟83种;旅鸟65种;冬候鸟21种;迷鸟21种。阿尔泰山鸟类种类以古北界种类为主(共249种),占总数的69.56%。同时具有一定比例的广布种(102种,28.48%)和东洋界物种(7种,1.96%)。可细分为7种区系分布类型,包括全北型、古北型、中亚型、高地型、东北型、东洋型、广布型。依然以古北界的分布型为主,其中古北型最多(108种),占总数的30.17%,其次是全北型68种,占总数的18.99%;中亚型36种,占总数的10.06%。阿尔泰山地区优势种共有9种:角百灵(Eremophila alpestris)、树麻雀(Passer montanus)、赤麻鸭(Tadorna ferruginea)、白鹡鸰(Motacilla alba)、家燕(Hirundo rustica)、家麻雀(Passer domesticus)、岩鸽(Columba rupestris)、紫翅椋鸟(Sturnus vulgaris)、黑鸢(Milvus migrans)。常见种137种,少见种72种以及偶见种33种。多样性指数计算结果表明,阿尔泰山鸟类多样性较高,而且年际变化平稳。阿勒泰市、哈巴河县、布尔津县、富蕴县、福海县和青河县之间物种组成很相似,相似性指数最高的两个县是富蕴和福海,而相似程度最低的两个县是阿勒泰和青河。F指数的比较结果:阿勒泰市的结果最高(34.06),哈巴河县的结果最低(30.49)。G指数的比较结果,最高值为福海县(4.79),最低值为富蕴县(4.69)。各县的G-F指数结果相近。阿尔泰山地区存在过度放牧、矿区开采、训鹰民俗、旅游开发、森林老化、围栏开垦等问题,不利于当地生态环境以及多样性的保护。物种杂交问题对于当地鸟类多样性的影响有待于进一步研究。
Other AbstractSeveral studies about ornithology in the Altai Mountains have been done for many years, but little about avian diversity. This research of assessing the diversity of birds by some diversity indices may engage with the biodiversity conservation and more further study.During 2015 ~ 2017, investigation by line transect and point transect, which included about 10 000 km length of survey line during 103d, had been finished. Combined with the literature, the catalog of birds had been worked out. Frequency index method was used to analyze the dominant species. What`s more, Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index, Pielou index and Alatalo index, Jaccard species similarity coefficient and G-F index were selected to assess the bird diversity. The significance of the results was tested by t-test and one-way ANOVA which is processed in Microsoft Excel 2016 and R software. The results are as followings.There are 358 species of birds in the Altai Mountains, belonging to 21 orders, 63 families, 176 genera. These birds can be classified by residence type into five types, comprising 172 species of summer resident birds, 83 species of resident birds, 65 species of traveling birds, 21 species of winter resident birds, and 21 species of vagrant.Species of Palearctic Realm (249 species) are dominant in the Altai Mountains, accounting for 69.56%, followed by eurychoric species (102 species, 28.48%) and species of Oriental Realm (7 species, 1.96%). There are 9 dominant species in the Altai Mountains: Horned lark Eremophila alpestris, Eurasian tree sparrow Tadorna ferruginea, Ruddy shelduck Hirundo rustica, White wagtail Motacilla alba, Barn swallow Hirundo rustica, House sparrow Passer domesticus, Rock pigeon Columba rupestris, Common starling Sturnus vulgaris, Tawny pipit Anthus campestris, Black kite Milvus migrans. The results of indices show that the bird diversity in the Altai Mountains is high and the interannual variation is stable. The composition of species of Altay City, Habahe County, Burqin County, Fuyun County, Fuhai County, and Qinghe County is very similar. The Jaccard index between Fuyun and Fuhai is the highst, while the lowest is between Altay and Qinghe. Comparing the results of the F-index, Altay City has the highest result (34.06) and Habahe County has the lowest (30.49). The highest value of the G index was Fuhai County (4.79) and the lowest was Fuyun County (4.69). The G-F indices of the counties are similar.Overgrazing, mineral exploitation, tourism exploration and hawk folk customs are not conductive to the protection of the local ecological environment and biodiversity. The impact of species hybridization on local bird diversity needs further study.
Subject Area生态学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14977
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘旭. 新疆阿尔泰山鸟类多样性研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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