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Thesis Advisor周宏飞
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword新疆生产建设兵团 水资源利用 农业用水 经济-生态效益,综合评价 Xinjiang production and construction Corps Water resources utilization Agricultural water Economic and ecological benefit Comprehensive evaluation
Abstract新疆生产建设兵团大规模的水土资源开发,促进新疆经济社会巨大发展的同时, 也产生了一些生态环境问题。 开展兵团农业水资源利用效益综合评价,对于兵团水资源高效利用以及农垦经济-生态可持续发展具有重要意义。 本文利用2001-2015 年兵团统计资料, 在整体把握兵团农业水资源利用和经济发展现状的基础上, 采用综合评价法和生态足迹模型等方法对农业水资源的经济和生态效益进行了综合评价,结合典型团场农业用水研究,提出了农业水资源合理利用对策建议。 主要结果如下:(1) 研究期内, 兵团水资源开发利用效益和经济社会效益呈增加趋势, 生态环境效益呈下降趋势,总体来说,水资源的综合效益呈总体增加趋势。 水资源开发利用效益指数从 2002 年 0.022 增加到 2015 年 0.214, 经济社会效益指数从0.011 增加到 0.496, 生态环境效益指数从 0.140 下降到 0.025,综合效益指数从0.173 增加到 0.736。兵团各地农业水资源利用的综合效益存在不均衡现象, 北疆各师平均综合效益好于南疆各师。2011 年,北疆各师平均综合效益指数为 0.460,南疆各师平均综合效益指数为 0.379,十师综合效益指数最高为 0.572, 十四师综合效益指数最低为 0.247。(2)兵团人均生态赤字呈持续扩大趋势,从 2001 年 0.355 hm2/人增加到 2015年 11.670 hm2/人,说明兵团经济发展对区域资源的消耗已经超过了区域可承受能力范围, 可持续发展面临挑战。 兵团人均水资源生态足迹从 2002 年的 7.568 hm2/人下降到 2015 年的 6.583 hm2/人,而人均水资源生态承载力从 0.788 hm2/人下降到 0.554 hm2/人, 人均水资源生态足迹显著高于人均水资源生态承载力。可见,现有的水资源利用模式是以牺牲生态为代价、不可持续的。(3) 典型团场的农业用水研究表明, 目前, 222 团存在生态用水得不到保证,地下水水位持续下降危及农田防护林和自然荒漠植被生存等问题。 团场为追求农业经济发展,过度开发水资源,导致垦区生态安全隐患增加。 222 团的农田冬灌水量在 2006 年为 615.44×104 m³,而 2013 年以后则减小到 0; 林业灌溉缺水量达到 325.50×104 m³;地下水埋深从 2002 年的 2.06 m 增加到 2015 年 7.10 m。总之,进入 21 世纪以来,虽然兵团水资源的综合效益总体上呈增加趋势,但生态赤字不断扩大,兵团农垦经济的可持续发展面临巨大的挑战,需要通过优化产业结构, 降低农业用水,保障生态用水等措施,实现兵团经济-生态的协调发展。
Other AbstractThe large-scale exploitation of water and land resources by Xinjiang Productionand Construction Corps (XPCC) has made great contribution to economic and socialdevelopment of Xinjiang. Meanwhile, it has also led to some problems in theecological environment. Comprehensive evaluation of agricultural water resourcesutilization was of great significance for both effective utilization of water resourcesand the sustainable development of economy and ecology for agricultural reclamation.Using the statistical data from 2001 to 2015 of XPCC in this paper, the currentsituation about water resources utilization and economic development were analyzed.Comprehensive evaluation method and ecological footprint model were used to assessthe benefit of economy and ecology for agricultural water use. Combinning with theresearch of typical farm, the countermeasures for rational utilization of agriculturalwater resources were put forward. The main results showed that:(1) During the study period, both the water resources exploitation benefit andeconomic-social benefit all showed an upward trend, however, the ecologicalenvironment benefit showed a downward trend. As a whole, the comprehensivebenefit showed an upward trend. The index of water resources exploitation benefitincreased from 0.022 in 2002 to 0.214 in 2015, and the index of economic-socialbenefit increased from 0.011 to 0.496. However, the index of ecological environmentbenefit decreased from 0.140 to 0.025. The index of comprehensive benefit increasedfrom 0.173 to 0.736. The index of average comprehensive benefit for agriculturalwater use in North Xinjiang of XPCC was better than that of South Xinjiang, whichrevealed the comprehensive benefit of regional agricultural water utilization wasunbalanced. In 2011, the index of average comprehensive benefit of North Xinjiangwas 0.460, while that of South Xinjiang was 0.379. Among all the divisions, the tenthdivision had the highest comprehensive benefit index of 0.572, while the fourteenth division had the lowest one of 0.247.(2) The per capita ecological deficit of XPCC was continuing to expand from0.355 hm2/cap in 2001 to 11.670 hm2/cap in 2015, which indicated that theconsumption of resources exceeded regional affordability and the sustainabledevelopment was facing challenge under the economic development. The per capitaecological footprint of water resource decreased from 7.568 hm2/cap to 6.583 hm2/cap,while the per capita ecological carrying capacity of water resource decreased from0.788 hm2/cap to 0.554 hm2/cap in 2002 to 2015. The per ecological footprint ofwater resources was much higher than that of ecological carrying capacity, suggestingthat the current way of water resources utilization was at the cost of ecologicalenvironment and in an unsustainable condition.(3)Research on agricultural water use in the typical farm showed that, currently,ecological water can not be guaranteed in No. 222 state farm of XPCC. Groundwaterlevel continued to decline in the farm, which endangered the survival of farmlandshelterbelt and natural desert vegetation. In order to pursue agricultural economicgrowth, the water resources was overexploited, leading to an increase of ecologicalrisks. The content of winter irrigation was 615.44×104 m³in 2006, but it decreased to0 after 2013. There still needed 325.50×104 m³ of water to afford farmland forest. Thedepth of groundwater was increased from 2.06 m in 2002 to 7.10 m in 2015.In conclusion, since the 21th Century, the comprehensive benefit of the waterresources for XPCC showed an upward trend, but the ecological deficit wascontinuing to expand. The sustainable development of XPCC was facing greatchallenges. To realize the coordinated development of economy and ecology, somemeasures were suggested such as optimizing the industrial structure, reducing thewater of agriculture utilization and ensuring the ecological water.
Subject Area自然地理学
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吕伟. 新疆生产建设兵团农业用水效益评价[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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