EGI OpenIR  > 研究系统  > 荒漠环境研究室
巴音郭楞蒙古自治州生态功能区划研究
史磊
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor周华荣
2018-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword巴音郭楞蒙古自治州 生态敏感性 生态脆弱性 生态系统服务价值 生态功能区划 Mongolian autonomous prefecture Ecological sensitivity Ecological fragility Ecological service function Ecological function areas
Abstract研究以巴州为例,在现场调查和资料收集的基础上,分析研究区生态环境及经济发展现状。 运用生态功能区划理论, 选取巴州地区代表性评价因子,构建生态足迹、生态敏感性、生态脆弱性、生态系统服务功能指标体系。借助 ArcGIS 10.1和 ERDAS 9.1 的支持,进行单因素及多因素综合评价, 揭示生态足迹、 生态敏感性、生态脆弱性、生态系统服务功能的空间分异规律。基于上述结果,进行巴州地区生态功能区划,从自然地理条件、气候特征、典型生态系统类型、区域主要生态环境问题及驱动力、生态敏感性、脆弱性和主导生态服务功能的角度进行特征描述,提出各生态区合理开发与保护的建议。主要研究结论如下:(1) 巴州地区生态环境脆弱,区域性生态环境问题突出。塔克拉玛干沙漠地区水资源匮乏,植被类型和生态系统类型比较单一,土壤沙化程度严重; 土壤侵蚀强度以巴州北部和静县和昆仑山北部最为强烈,主要由于巴州北部人为活动剧烈,坡度较为陡峭,水土流失侵蚀较强所致; 其他区域侵蚀程度相对较小,以风蚀为主。(2) 2009-2014 年巴州人均生态足迹保持持续增长状态,其中耕地对增长贡献最大;受资源分布禀赋的影响,高人均生态足迹增长地带主要集中于巴州北部县市,主要包括库尔勒市、和静县、和硕县和焉耆县;从整个时间维度上看,人均生态赤字和生态足迹呈增长趋势,生态承载力保持稳定,巴州处于不可持续发展状态。主成分分析结果显示,巴州生态赤字时间变化趋势主要受快速人口增长、固定资产投资、居民消费水平及农牧民产出的正向驱动,干旱脆弱的生态环境所造成生态承载力较低也潜在起了推动作用。(3)研究区不同脆弱性面积呈现极度脆弱 > 轻度脆弱 > 高度脆弱 > 中度脆弱 > 不脆弱的特征。以极度脆弱和轻度脆弱为主,极度脆弱主要分布于塔里木河中下游沿线、车尔臣河沿线及塔克拉玛干沙漠中部区域;轻度脆弱区主要沿库鲁克塔格山和孔雀河分布。整体而言,研究区生态环境脆弱化严重,与研究区水资源的匮乏、土地沙化程度高及植物低覆盖度等因素有关。(4)研究区生态敏感性面积整体呈现:轻度敏感>高度敏感>中度敏感>不敏感>极敏感。从生态敏感性综合分布来看,研究区集中表现为轻度敏感、中度敏感和高度敏感,面积分别为 52.20×104km2、 37.64×104km2 和 42.50×104km2, 占研究区总面积比例的 93.27%,其中以轻度敏感分布最广,主要集中在罗布泊荒漠、车尔臣河平原绿洲及阿尔金山北麓山前平原。(5)研究区生态服务功能等级面积呈现比较重要 > 不重要 > 中等重要 >高度重要 > 极重要的分布特征,比较重要主要位于昆仑山北部和若羌东部区域;不重要集中分布于塔克拉玛干沙漠,少部分破碎化分布于库木塔格沙漠。整体来看,生态服务功能较高地带集中于巴州北部地区,主要由于巴州北部地区河网相对密集,水文调蓄功能较强,植物生态系统和土壤生态系统多样,生态系统稳定,生态服务功能较强。(6)基于 ArcGIS 10.1“Spatial analysis” 功能, 结合生态系统类型、生态敏感性、生态脆弱性和生态系统服务功能评价结果,将研究区划分为 5 个一级生态功能区和 18 个二级生态功能区,分析各功能区范围、面积、生态功能特点及重要性、生态环境问题和保护方向,为合理开发及保护生态环境提供参考。
Other AbstractBased on the investigation and data analysis, the present situation of ecologicalenvironment and economic development is analyzed in the state of Mongolia. Basedon the survey results of the current situation of the environmental economy, therepresentative evaluation factors of research area were selected to construct the indexsystem of ecological sensitivity, ecological vulnerability and ecosystem servicefunction. With the support of ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 9.1, the method of qualitativedescription and quantitative analysis was adopted to carry out single factor andmulti-factor comprehensive evaluation to reveal the spatial differentiation law ofecological sensitivity, ecological fragility, ecosystem service function and ecologicalfunctional zoning. It point out that characteristics of natural geographical condition,climate characteristic, typical ecological system type, major ecological environmentissue and driving force, ecological sensitivity, vulnerability and dominant ecologicalservice function, which indicates the orientation of ecological environmentconstruction and development, proposes the proposal of rational development andprotection of ecological environment, and aims at providing scientific basis forecological environment protection and economic exploitation in the research area.(1)The ecological environment of Bazhou is fragile and the regional ecologicalenvironment is prominent. There is a lack of precipitation, water shortage, vegetationtype and ecosystem type, and the soil desertification degree is serious in the TaklaMakan desert. The soil erosion intensity is the strongest in the north of Bazhou andthe north of kunlun mountains, mainly due to the intense activity of the people innorthern Pakistan, the steepness of the slope, the strong erosion of soil erosion, andthe relatively small erosion degree in other regions, which is dominated by winderosion.(2) The per capita ecological footprint kept growing during 2009-2014, and madethe largest contribution to the growth. The high per capita ecological footprint was concentrated in the northern part of Bazhou by the distribution endowment ofresources. The current development status of Bazhou was unsustainable according toits stabling biocapacity and increasing ecological deficit and footprint. The rapidpopulation growth, fixed asset investment, household consumption levels and farmand herdsmen's output was the most positive driving force of ecological footprintgrowth.(3) The study area is characterized by extreme fragility and mild vulnerability,extremely fragile > mild vulnerability > vulnerable > weak > invulnerable. Theextreme vulnerability is mainly distributed along the middle and lower reaches of theTarim River, along the train river and the central part of the Takla Makan desert. Thelight vulnerable areas are mainly distributed along the Kuroluta Mountain and thePeacock River and the Iron Plate River. As a whole, the ecological environment of thestudy area is very fragile, which is related to the lack of water resources in theresearch area, the high degree of desertification and the low coverage of plants.(4) The area of ecological sensitivity in the study area was presented as a whole:lightly sensitive > highly sensitive > medium sensitive > insensitive > extremelysensitive. The study area is given priority to with light sensitive, moderate sensitiveand highly sensitive, covers an area of 52.20 x 104 km2, 37.64 x 104 km2 and 42.50 x104 km2, 93.27% of the total area of the study area, three of which the most widelydistributed light sensitive, and mainly concentrated in desert and Oasis Qiemo RiverPlain and the northern foothills of the Altun Mountain.(5) The area of ecological service function in the study area was presented as awhole: more important > not important > medium important > height important >very important. The area of more important is mainly located in the northern part ofKunlun Mountain and the eastern region of Ruoqiang. The area of not important ismainly located in Takla Makan desert. As a whole, the higher ecological service areais concentrated in the northern part of the state, mainly due to the fact that thenorthern state of the state has a relatively high level of hydrology and ecosystemservices.(6) Based on ArcGIS 10.1 spatial overlay analysis function, combining the result of the ecological system type, ecological sensitivity and ecological fragility and theecosystem service function, the study area is divided into 5 primary ecologicalfunction areas and 18 secondary ecological function areas. This paper analyzed thefeatures and importance of functional area, area, ecological function, ecologicalenvironment and protection direction, and provides reference for rational developmentand protection of ecological environment.Keyword
Subject Area环境科学专业
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/14984
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
史磊. 巴音郭楞蒙古自治州生态功能区划研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[史磊]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[史磊]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[史磊]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.