KMS XINJIANG INSTITUTE OF ECOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY，CAS
|Place of Conferral||新疆乌鲁木齐|
|Keyword||醉鱼草 桃叶卫矛 干旱、盐胁迫 生理生化 Buddleja Alternifolia Maxim Euonymus Fortune Drought Salt Stress Physiological And Biochemical Changes|
塔克拉玛干沙漠是世界第二大流动性沙漠，也是我国重要的天然气和石油储备基地。塔中四号油田基地位于沙漠腹地， 该地区风沙活动强烈，环境条件极其恶劣，严重影响油田正常的作业和工人的身体健康。修建风沙防护林和扩大作业区植物绿化面积是降低油田生产风险和改善作业区生活环境的重要手段之一。植物的适应性研究是油田防护林生态工程建设中植物的筛选和引种的基础工作。本研究位于塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地塔中植物园内，依据塔克拉玛干沙漠植物园已有的植物灌溉制度，通过田间人工控制试验、室内分析和统计分析，开展了主要引种物种对塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地生存环境适应性的研究。研究重点为：不同盐浓度灌溉下引种植物生长和生理变化，引种植物应对干旱和盐胁迫的防御机制，所得到的主要结论如下：（1）在干旱、盐及交互作用的不同胁迫处理下醉鱼草、桃叶卫矛的成活率有所不同，醉鱼草平均成活率达到了 78.86%，而桃叶卫矛平均成活率只有 46.86%。当盐浓度大于 11 g/L 时，不同灌水量处理下幼苗成活率都出现下降， 醉鱼草在盐浓度 17 g/L 下幼苗有部分可以生存，桃叶卫矛在重度盐胁迫下几乎不能生存。（2）醉鱼草干、鲜重生物量在干旱、盐及交互胁迫下表现出先增加后减少的趋势，单一胁迫下，两种因子均对生物量有显著影响，在交互胁迫下只有盐胁迫对幼苗生物量有显著影响。桃叶卫矛干、鲜重生物量在干旱、盐及交互胁迫下表现出不断下降趋势，在单一胁迫时，盐胁迫对幼苗的干，鲜重生物量均有显著影响。（3）醉鱼草幼苗株高、标定枝长和基径在干旱、盐及交互胁迫下呈现随着胁迫的加重，生长抑制更加明显，株高和基径增长量在盐浓度 5 g/L 下出现上升，随后不断下降，在重度胁迫下各指标的生长情况均差于其他处理。桃叶卫矛幼苗株高、标定枝长和基径在干旱、盐及交互胁迫下随着干旱胁迫的加重，各指标增长量均不断减少，交互胁迫下在盐浓度大于 11 g/L 时，处理间各灌水量下的增长量变化不大。（4）醉鱼草幼苗叶片抗氧化酶 SOD、 POD 和 CAT 活性在干旱胁迫下表现出随着灌水量的减少，活性逐渐增加的趋势。而盐胁迫下，随着胁迫程度的加重，酶活性表现出先增加后减少再增加的趋势。桃叶卫矛幼苗叶片抗氧化酶 SOD、POD 和 CAT 活性，在干旱胁迫时变化与醉鱼草相似，同样表现出逐渐升高的趋势。盐胁迫时呈先增加后减少现象， SOD 和 CAT 活性在盐浓度 13 g/L 下达到最大值，随后不断下降。（5）在干旱、盐及交互作用的不同胁迫处理下，醉鱼草 MDA 含量在胁迫不断加重处理下表现出先降低再升高的趋势。桃叶卫矛叶片 MDA 含量在干旱胁迫灌水量 30 L 时出现最小值，最低点与醉鱼草出现的位置不同，桃叶卫矛表现出对干旱胁迫更敏感的反应。盐旱交互胁迫下叶片 MDA 含量呈先下降后上升的趋势，与相同处理下抗氧化酶活性呈现负相关关系。（6）盐胁迫对醉鱼草和桃叶卫矛的影响显著大于干旱胁迫，醉鱼草在盐浓度小于 13 g/L，灌水量 20 L 以上生长良好；桃叶卫矛在盐浓度小于 11 g/L，灌水量20 L 以上生长良好。
The Taklimakan Desert is the second largest mobile desert in the world and isalso an important oil and natural gas reserve base in China. The Tazhong No. 4 oilfield base is located in the desert hinterland. It has strong wind and sand activity andextremely harsh environmental conditions, which seriously affect the operation of oilfields and the health of workers. The construction of wind-sand shelter forests and theexpansion of green areas in operation areas are important means for reducing theproduction risks of oil fields and improving the living environment in the workingareas. The adaptability research of plants is the basic work for the screening andintroduction of plants in the construction of oilfield protection forest ecologicalprojects. This study is located in the Tazhong Botanical Garden in the hinterland ofthe Taklamakan Desert. Based on the existing irrigation system of the TaklamakanDesert Botanical Garden, the field introduced the main introduced species to study theadaptability of the living environment in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desertthrough field manual control experiments, indoor analysis and statistical analysis. Theresearch focuses are: Introduction of plant growth and physiological changes underirrigation at different salt concentrations, introduction of plant defense mechanismsagainst drought and salt stress, and the main conclusions obtained are as follows:(1) The survival rate of Buddleja alternifolia Maxim and Euonymus citrifoliaunder different stresses of drought, salt, and interaction were different. The averagesurvival rate of Buddleja alternifolia Maxim was up to 78.86%, while the averagesurvival rate of Euonymus argus was only 46.86%. When the salt concentration wasgreater than 11 g/L, the survival rate of seedlings decreased under different irrigationtreatments. Some of the seedlings could survive under the salt concentration of 17 g/L.The Euonymus pulcherrima survived under severe salt stress.(2) The dry and fresh weight biomass of Buddleja edulis showed a tendency ofincreasing first and then decreasing under drought stress, salt stress and interaction stress. Under single stress, both factors had significant effects on biomass, and onlysalt stress under interactive stress. There is a significant effect on seedling biomass.The dry and fresh weight biomass of Euonymus aurantiacus showed a declining trendunder drought stress, salt stress, and interaction stress. Under a single stress, salt stresshad a significant effect on the biomass of stem and fresh weight of seedlings.(3) Plant height, branch length, and base diameter of Buddleja alternifolia Maximseedlings showed more pronounced growth inhibition with drought stress, salt stress,and interactive stress, and increased plant height and base diameter at saltconcentration of 5 g/L. There was a rise, followed by a continuous decline, and thegrowth of the indicators under severe stress was worse than other treatments. Theplant height, the target shoot length and the base diameter of Euonymus ulmariaseedlings under drought stress, salt stress, and interactive stress were all increasedwith the increase of drought stress, and the increase amount of each index wascontinuously decreased. When the salt concentration was greater than 11 g/L underthe interaction stress, the treatment rooms were different. The amount of increase inirrigation volume did not change much.(4) The activities of SOD, POD and CAT in the leaves of Buddleja alternifoliaMaxim seedlings showed a tendency of increasing with the decrease of irrigationvolume under drought stress. Under salt stress, with the increase of the degree ofstress, the activity of the enzyme showed a trend of increasing first, then decreasingand then increasing. The activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, POD, and CAT inleaves of Euonymus ulmoides seedlings were similar to those of Buddleja lanceolataunder drought stress, and they also showed a gradual increase. Under salt stress, itincreased first and then decreased significantly. The activities of SOD and CATreached a maximum at a salt concentration of 13 g/L and then decreased continuously.(5) The MDA content of Buddleja alternifolia Maxim under the treatment ofdrought, salt and interaction showed a tendency of decreasing and then increasingunder increasing stress. The MDA content in leaves of Euonymus arborescens showeda minimum at the irrigation stress of 30 L under drought stress, and the lowest pointwas different from the location of Buddleja turfgrass. The Euonymus pulcherrima showed a more sensitive response to drought stress. Under salt and drought stress, thecontent of MDA decreased firstly and then increased, and showed a negativecorrelation with the activity of antioxidant enzymes under the same treatment.（6） The effect of salt stress on Buddleja turfgrass and Euonymus cinnamomea wassignificantly greater than that of drought stress. Buddleja sphaerocephala grew well insalt concentration less than 13 g/L and the irrigation amount was more than 20 L.Euonymus mirifica grew well in the salt concentration of less than 11 g/L andirrigation amount of 20 L or more.
|王利界. 盐旱交互胁迫对醉鱼草、桃叶卫矛生长和生理生化特性的影响[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.|
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