KMS XINJIANG INSTITUTE OF ECOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY，CAS
|Place of Conferral||新疆乌鲁木齐|
|Keyword||古尔班通古特沙漠 水量平衡法 波文比—能量平衡法 互补相关法 梭梭蒸散 Gurbantunggut Desert Water Balance Method Bowen-energy Balance Method Complementary Correlation Method Haloxylon Evapotranspiration|
梭梭作为古尔班通古特沙漠的主要建群种，研究其蒸散规律对维持和恢复生态环境具有主要意义。本文选择新疆古尔班通古特沙漠南缘典型梭梭群落作为试验对象，采用水量平衡法、波文比—能量平衡法和互补相关法对梭梭群落蒸散量进行了测定和估算。 结果表明：（1） 2016 年梭梭群落生长季降水量为多年平均降水量的 160.60 %，降水丰富，降水以小事件(< 5 mm）为主，但大于 5 mm 的降水为降水主要贡献量。试验区生长季内降水量分布不均，梭梭萌发期，降水量最多；梭梭生长旺盛期，月降水量逐月减少；梭梭枯落期，降水量最少。（2） 2016 年梭梭生长季蒸散量变化特征为多峰曲线，峰值主要出现在降雨集中期，最低值出现在土壤贮水量亏损期。梭梭萌发期，蒸散量逐月增大并达到峰值；梭梭生长旺盛期，蒸散逐月减小；梭梭枯落期蒸散回升。（3） 2016 年梭梭群落生长季内的蒸散量为 280.6 mm，其中降水满足率为73.66 %，土壤发挥水库效应，依靠生长季前土壤蓄水来弥补梭梭群落生长季需水缺额。 4 月和 10 月的降水满足率为 128.89 %和 104.03 %，土壤开始储水； 5 月到9 月的降水满足率不足 100 %，土壤水分亏损。（4）在沙漠生态系统中， 梭梭生长内太阳净辐射、土壤热通量、潜热通量和感热通量的日变化均呈单峰状分布，且土壤热通量的峰值比太阳净辐射推迟 2 小时；由于梭梭萌发期平均降水量最大，下垫面水分充足，使梭梭萌发期潜热通量峰值大于梭梭生长旺盛期和梭梭枯落期；而在梭梭生长旺盛期， 古尔班通古特沙漠的能量主要用于大气运动引起的感热通量，用于水蒸发相变的能量较少。（5）在古尔班通古特沙漠，由于温湿探头精度不足与平流介入的影响，使波文比—能量平衡法估算的蒸散量平均偏大 17.05 %， 但它在国际测试蒸散精度水平的 ITCE 实验所测精度内， 因此波文比—能量平衡法能够适用于古尔班通古特沙漠。（6） 与水量平衡法相比， 互补相关法和波文比—能量平衡法所估算的梭梭月蒸散量平均相对误差均低于 20%，因此互补相关法和波文比—能量平衡法均能够估算古尔班通古特沙漠梭梭蒸散量。 且互补相关法和波文比—能量平衡法所估算的梭梭月蒸散量误差最小月出现在梭梭萌发期。
The Haloxylon ammodendron is the main building species in the GurbantonggutDesert. The study of evapotranspiration is of great significance for maintaining andrestoring the ecological environment. The water balance method, bowen-energybalance method and complementary correlation method are used to determine andestimate the evapotranspiration of the Haloxylon ammodendron community. Theresults show that:(1) In 2016, the annual precipitation in the community of Haloxylonammodendron was 160.60 % of the average annual rainfall. Precipitation was abundant.Precipitation was dominated by small events (< 5 mm), but precipitation greater than 5mm was the main contribution of precipitation. The distribution of precipitation in theexperimental season is uneven, Haloxylon ammodendron and precipitation are the most.During the period of vigorous growth of Haloxylon ammodendron, monthlyprecipitation decreases monthly; Haloxylon ammodendron has the lowest period ofprecipitation and precipitation.(2) Using the water balance method to calculate the evapotranspiration ofHaloxylon ammodendron, it can be seen that the variability of evapotranspiration in thegrowth season of Haloxylon ammodendron in 2016 is a multi-peak curve, with thepeak value mainly occurring in the rainfall concentration period and the lowest valueoccurring in the soil water storage loss period. At the germination stage of Haloxylonammodendron, the amount of evapotranspiration increased month by month andpeaked; during the vigorous growth period of Haloxylon ammodendron, theevapotranspiration decreased month by month, and the evapotranspiration ofHaloxylon ammodendron picked up.(3) The evapotranspiration during the growing season of Haloxylon ammodendronin 2016 was 280.62 mm, and the precipitation satisfaction rate was 73.66 %. The soilexerted the effect of reservoir, and the soil water storage before the growing season was used to make up for the shortage of water in the growing season of Haloxylonammodendron community. The precipitation satisfaction rates in April and Octoberwere 128.89 % and 104.03 %, and the soil began to store water; the precipitationsatisfaction rate from May to September was less than 100 %, and the soil moistureloss.(4) During the growing season of Haloxylon ammodendron, the daily variations ofnet solar radiation, soil heat flux, latent heat flux, and sensible heat flux in the desertecosystem show a single peak distribution, and the peak ratio of soil heat flux The netsolar radiation was postponed for 2 hours and there was hysteresis; due to the largestaverage precipitation in the germination phase of Haloxylon ammodendron andsufficient moisture on the underlying surface, the peak latent heat flux during thegermination phase of Haloxylon ammodendron was greater than that during thevigorous growth period of Haloxylon ammodendron and the dry period of Haloxylonammodendron. During the vigorous growth of Haloxylon ammodendron, the energy ofthe Gurbantunggut desert is mainly used for the sensible heat flux caused byatmospheric motion, and there is less energy for water vapor phase transition.(5) In the Gurbantunggut Desert, due to the lack of precision of the temperature andhumidity probes and the influence of advection, the evapotranspiration estimated bythe Bowen-Energy balance method is on average larger by 17.05 %, which is lowerthan the accuracy of the international test evapotranspiration. Therefore, theBowen-Energy balance method can be applied to the Gurbantunggut desert.(6) Compared with the water balance method, the average relative error of themonthly evapotranspiration estimated by the complementary correlation method andthe Bowen-energy balance method is less than 20%. Therefore, both thecomplementary correlation method and the Bowen-energy balance method canestimate the evapotranspiration of Haloxylon ammodendron in Gurbantonggut Desert.The monthly minimum evapotranspiration error of Haloxylon ammodendron estimatedby the complementarity correlation method and the Bowen-energy balance methodappeared at the germination period of Haloxylon ammodendron.
|王泽锋. 古尔班通古特沙漠南缘梭梭群落蒸散量测算方法与蒸散规律研究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.|
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