KMS XINJIANG INSTITUTE OF ECOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY，CAS
|Place of Conferral||新疆乌鲁木齐|
|Keyword||新疆 城市扩张 驱动机制 人地配置协调性 Xinjiang Urban Expansion Driving Mechanism The Coordination Of Man-land Allocation|
新疆维吾尔族自治区作为拥有重要战略地位的边疆省区，始终受中央政府的格外关注，上世纪末以来先后获得西部大开发、对口援疆、“一带一路”等重大项目实施，经济水平和社会生活得到了极大的发展，基础设施不断完善，城市建设面积持续增加。然而土地城市化与建设用地低效利用、耕地流失、生态安全等方面之间的诸多矛盾随之产生，问题的根源在于人地冲突，而解决的基本出路是人地关系地域系统的协调共生。因此， 本研究可以新疆未来城市空间发展趋势与土地合理开发管理提供有价值的参考， 对于实现城市可持续发展具有重要的现实意义。本文从土地城市化角度出发， 利用遥感与 GIS 技术， 以 1990 年、 2000 年、2010 年的土地覆被数据和 2016 年的遥感影像为数据源，分析 26 年间新疆重点城市建设用地扩张的时空特征， 对比分析东西部城市扩张过程， 探寻城市扩张驱动机制，并从城市土地扩张与人口增长、经济发展之间相互关系视角探寻人地配置协调性的空间耦合演化特征和存在问题。主要得出以下结论。（1） 1990-2016 年，新疆大多数城市经历了剧烈的建设用地扩张过程，城市建设用地扩张面积始终较大的城市集中于天山北坡城市群， 2010 年对口援疆工作极大促进了南疆城市的建设， 喀什、库尔勒、 阿克苏的城市扩张显著，而偏远城市（如和田、 霍城和阿勒泰）由于交通不便、 资源困乏等原因，城市建设用地面积变化微弱。新疆城市建设用地的扩张主要来源于对草地、 农田等生态服务用地的占用，由草地、森林等自然植被用地转换为建设用地主要发生在水源充足的天山北坡地区，喀什、 石河子等农业城市在扩张过程中占用的农田最多， 裸地则是库尔勒、哈密城市扩展的最主要贡献源。通过量化新疆城市扩张类型和景观格局指数，发现新疆城市在研究期间类型以边缘型为主，景观格局趋于紧凑。城市集聚-扩散-再集聚过程与城市的发展程度有关， 由于城市发展速度相对较慢，新疆城市扩张过程相对延长，特别是对于不发达和发展中的城市， 在整个研究期只经历了一个或者两个阶段， 而对于乌鲁木齐、库尔勒、昌吉等较发达的城市， 城市扩张过程则可以在 20 余年经历一个完整的集聚-扩散-再集聚周期。（2） 根据城市的功能与产业结构,本文选取了乌鲁木齐、 喀什、 克拉玛依、石河子等四个典型城市作为实例进行内部结构演化研究，并进行东西部城市比较研究。结果发现新疆城市新增建设用地受政府规划和政策影响显著， 以工业园区与经济开发区为主， 功能较单一。 与东部城市相比， 新疆城市扩张起步较晚， 扩张过程整体上较平稳。（3） 综合空间要素耦合匹配和地理探测器模拟的分析结果， 得出影响城市扩张的主导因素， 进一步分析各主导因素对城市扩张分异的驱动机制。结果表明经济增长和人口增长是城市扩张的主要驱动因素，政府财政支出在很大程度上决定了城市扩张的规模和方向，静态地理位置对城市发展和建设的影响有限，而交通的发展是推进城市扩张的更有力的因素。至于城市扩张规模的自然因素，除海拔与城市扩张规模呈现负相关外，其他自然因素对城市扩张影响微弱。（4）新疆城市人地配置协调性分析结果表明新疆建设用地扩张与人口增长的协调关系以土地扩张型为主，与经济发展之间则处于较协调的状态。 在整个研究期内， 城市建设用地与人口增长的协调关系主要属于土地快速扩张型； 协调性在时间序列上不断减弱，主要协调类型由土地扩张型向土地扩张型与人口增长型并重转变；空间上，天山北坡、南疆的城市主要为土地扩张型，北疆则以人口增长型城市为主。城市建设用地扩张与经济发展速率处于比较平衡的状态，时间序列上呈现出较强-增强-减弱的趋势，经济快速发展型城市逐渐增多；协调型城市空间上主要分布于经济状况与基础建设均较良好的天山山脉附近。
Xinjiang, known as a frontier province which has a significant strategic position,has been constantly received particular attention from the central government. Sincethe end of the last century, Xinjiang is witnessing great development of theeconomical level and social life, continuous improvement of the infrastructureconstruction, and rapid increase of urban construction area, because several strategicsupport polices have been one after another implemented, including the Great WesternDevelopment, Counterpart in Xinjiang, “One Belt and One Road” policies. Whereas,many problems also origin during the same time, such as urbanization of land,inefficient utilization of construction land, loss of arable land, and ecological security.The root of these problems is the contradiction between human and land, accordinglythe essential resolution to solve these problems is regional system of man-landrelationship. As a consequence, on the basis of general analysis and summary of thisresearch, some valuable references for the future urban spatial development trend andrational utilization and management of land are provided, which have great realisticsignificance to improve the development of urban man-land relationship.From the perspective of urbanization of land, this thesis adopts the LUCC data in1990, 2000 and 2010 and remote sensing imaginary in 2016 as its data source. On thebasis of remote sensing and GIS technology, this thesis analyzes the spatial-temporalcharacteristics of urban construction land-use expansion in key cities, Xinjiang,compares the expansion process between eastern and western cities of Xinjiang,explores the urban expansion mechanism, investigates the features of spatial couplingevolution of man-land relationship from the viewpoint of interrelation of urban landresource, population growth and economic development, and also puts forwardseveral existing problems. Based on the above research, the thesis comes out thefollowing conclusions:(1) Most cities in Xinjiang has experienced the process of acute urbanconstruction land expansion during 1990-2016. Those cities, which constantly have relatively larger area of urban land expansion, mainly concentrate in the UrbanAgglomeration of Tianshan Mountains’ Northern Slope. The Counterpart in Xinjiangsince 2010 has considerably promoted the development of cities in TianshanMountains’ southern slope, especially the urban expansion of Kashgar, Korla, andAksu. Nonetheless, the area changes of urban land in the remote cities, includingHotan, Huocheng, Altay, still remain relatively low.The expansion of urban land in Xinjiang are mainly derived from the occupationof ecological service land, such as grassland and farmland. The transformation fromnatural vegetation land including natural grassland and forest to urban land primarilyarises in regions of Tianshan Mountains’ northern slope with sufficient water resource.During the expansion, the agriculture cities mostly occupies the farmland, such asKashgar and Shihezi, while in Korla and Hami, bare land is the predominantoccupation source of urban land expansion.By means of quantification of the expansion types and landscape pattern index ofXinjiang cities, the spatial structure of Xinjiang cities tends to compact, and isgenerally at the stage of agglomeration. The process of agglomeration, diffusion andre-agglomeration is related to the development level of cities. For reason that the rateof development is relatively slower, the process of urban expansion is correspondinglyprolonged, especially the underdeveloped and developing cities, which onlyexperienced one or two stages during the study period. Nevertheless, for those moredeveloped cities such as Urumqi, Korla and Changji, the process of urban expansionhave experienced a complete stage of agglomeration, diffusion and re-agglomeration.(2) According to the urban function and industrial structure, the four typicalcities including Urumqi, Kashgar, Karamay and Shihezi are taken as examples to beanalyzed in detail, and to be compared with eastern cities in China. The results showthat the governmental planning and policies play a significant role on the newly-addedurban construction land, which is dominated by industrial parks and economicdevelopment zones with a single function. Compared with the eastern cities, theexpansion of Xinjiang cities started relatively late and the rate of expansion isgenerally stable.(3) The analysis results of spatial element coupling matching and geo-detectoridentify the leading factors of urban expansion, and further investigate the drivingmechanism of these leading factors on differentiating urban expansion. Theconsequences illustrate that the economic development and population growth are thekey driving force of urban expansion; the government expenditure, to a large extent,determines the scale and direction of urban expansion; the static geographical positionhas relatively smaller impact on city development and construction; whereas, thedevelopment of transportation influences the urban expansion more powerful. As forthe natural factors, in spite of the negative relationship between the altitude and thescale of the urban expansion, other has weak impact on the urban expansion.(4) The analysis on compatibility of man-land allocation in Xinjiang citiesdemonstrates that the coordination relationship between urban construction expansionand population growth is dominated by land expansion, and the relationship betweenconstruction expansion and economic development is more coordinate. During thewhole study period, the coordination relationship between urban constructionexpansion and population growth is generally classified to the type of acute landexpansion. Sequentially, the compatibility tends to weaken. The primary coordinationrelationship is transformed from the type of land expansion to type of both landexpansion and population growth. Spatially, the type of cities in Tianshan Mountains’Northern Slope and Southern Xinjiang are mainly land expansion, and the type ofcities in Northern Xinjiang are primarily population growth. The relationship betweenurban construction expansion and the rate of economic development is in balance.Sequentially the trend presents as strong, then strengthening and final weakening, andthe number of rapid economic developing cities increases. Spatially, the coordinatecities distribute around Tianshan Mountains, where both the economic conditions andinfrastructure are productive.
|许雪爽. 新疆重点城市建设用地扩张与人地配置协调性分析[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.|
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