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新疆小麦种质资源耐盐性评价及提高种子耐盐性方法探究
张磊
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor田长彦
2018-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral新疆乌鲁木齐
Degree Discipline工程硕士
Keyword小麦 盐胁迫 耐盐性鉴定 发芽率 低温层积 发芽指数 Wheat Salt Stress Salt Tolerance Identification Germination Rate Cold Stratification Germination Index
Abstract

农用地次生盐渍化日趋加剧是全世界灌溉农业需要面对和解决的主要生态问题之一。新疆是我国盐碱土集中分布大区, 37.72 %的耕地受到盐碱危害。小麦是全世界重要的粮食作物之一,而且在新疆利用次生盐渍化土地进行小麦种植的面积较大。当前,新疆地区具有较多优良的耐盐小麦品种,但在以往的小麦耐盐性研究过程中,有关新疆地区小麦耐盐种质资源鉴定和评价的研究甚少。耐盐小麦种质资源的鉴定与评价,提高种子萌发阶段耐盐能力,对提高次生盐渍化农用地的生产力具有十分重要的理论价值和现实意义。本文以新疆主栽小麦品种为主,选用 15 个小麦品种(新冬 20 号,新冬 22 号,新冬 26 号,新春 10 号,新春 12 号,新春 15 号,新春 18 号,新春 20 号,新春 27 号,新春 29 号,新春34 号,新春 43 号,小偃 22,周麦 27,晋麦 47)为实验材料, 参照农业部行业标准 《小麦耐盐性鉴定评价技术规范》(NY/PZT 001-2002) 对小麦种子发芽阶段和幼苗阶段进行耐盐性鉴定,并采用隶属函数分析法进行耐盐性评价。为了探索 NaCl 溶液低温层积和 NaCl 溶液引发两种播前预处理技术对小麦发芽阶段耐盐性的影响,对耐盐(小偃 81)和不耐盐(陕农 33)小麦品种的种子在盐胁迫条件下的发芽率和发芽指数两个指标进行了分析。 主要结果如下:(1) 15 个小麦品种耐盐性鉴定结果表明:供试小麦品种均不是高度耐盐品种。其中,发芽期耐盐性鉴定结果为: 新冬 22 号、新春 12 号、新春 18 号和晋麦 47 为耐盐品种, 新冬 20 号、新春 20 号和周麦 27 为中度耐盐品种,其他品种均为不耐盐品种;苗期耐盐性鉴定结果: 新冬 22 号、新冬 26 号和小偃 22 为耐盐品种新春 15 号不耐盐品种,其余均为中度耐盐品种;因此, 新冬 22 号小麦在发芽期和苗期均达到耐盐水平,可作为优选耐盐小麦品种进行农业推广。(2)通过线性回归方程对小麦发芽过程中的耐盐半致死浓度进行计算,结果表明新春 18 号、新冬 22 号、新冬 20 号和周麦 27 耐盐阈值较高分别为 308、291、 287、 285 m mol·L-1,与耐盐性鉴定和评价结果一致,均为耐盐小麦品种,因此耐盐半致死浓度能够作为耐盐阈值对小麦发芽阶段的耐盐性进行初步比较;当 NaCl 浓度为 225 m mol·L-1 时,除了新冬 26 号,其他小麦品种发芽期的相对盐害率绝对值均小于 50%,说明该浓度能够作为耐盐级别评价和耐盐性评价的临界浓度。(3)本文通过温室水培的方式对供试小麦苗期进行盐胁迫处理,并对苗根长、株高、干重、鲜重等生长指标在盐胁迫条件下的变化进行了研究。实验结果表明,在 300 m mol·L-1 NaCl 溶液胁迫下,根长平均缩短 47 %,株高缩短 31 %,地上部分鲜重与干重分别下降了 72 和 57 %,地下部分鲜重与干重分别下降了81 %和 72 %。由此可见,当小麦在幼苗阶段受到盐胁迫时,根系干物质积累量的减少程度显著高于地上部分。(4)NaCl 溶液低温层积预处理可有效地提高小麦种子在高盐胁迫(200 ~300m mol·L-1 NaCl 溶液)条件下发芽率和发芽指数,随着层积液浓度的增加促进效果降低;而 NaCl 引发处理对小麦种子在盐胁迫条件下的发芽率和发芽指数未表现出促进作用。

Other Abstract

The increasing intensification of secondary salinization in agricultural land is oneof the major ecological issues that irrigated agriculture in the world needs to face andsolve. Xinjiang is a large concentration of saline-alkali soil in China, and 37.72 % ofthe arable land is affected by salt and alkali. Wheat is one of the most important foodcrops in the world, and the use of secondary salinization land in Xinjiang is large. Atpresent, there are more excellent salt-tolerant wheat varieties in Xinjiang, but in thepast research on salt tolerance of wheat, little research has been done on theidentification and evaluation of wheat salt-tolerance germplasm resources in Xinjiang.The identification and evaluation of salt-tolerant wheat germplasm resources and theimprovement of salt tolerance at the seed germination stage have very importanttheoretical and practical significance for improving the productivity of secondarysalinized agricultural land. In this paper, the main wheat varieties in Xinjiang aredominated by 15 wheat varieties (Xindong 20, Xindong 22, Xindong 26, Xinchun 10,Xinchun 12, Xinchun 15, Xinchun 18, Xinchun 20, Xinchun 27, Xinchun 29, Xinchun34, Xinchun 43, Xiaoyan 22, Zhoumai 27, Jinmai 47) as experimental materials. Thesalt tolerance of wheat seed germination stage and seedling stage was identifiedaccording to the industry standard of the Ministry of Agriculture “TechnicalSpecification for Evaluation of Wheat Salt Tolerance” (NY/PZT 001-2002), and thesalt tolerance evaluation was performed using the membership function analysismethod. In order to explore the effects of low temperature stratification with differentconcentrations of NaCl solution and NaCl-priming on the salt tolerance of wheatduring germination, salt-tolerant (Xiaoyan 81) and salt-intolerant (Shannong 33)wheat cultivars seeds were studied under the conditions of salt stress and germinationrate and index. The main results are as follows:(1) The results of salt tolerance evaluation showed that there were no high salttolerance varieties in the 15 tested wheat varieties. The results of salt-toleranceidentification at the bud stage were as follows: Xindong 22, Xinchun 12, Xinchun 18and Jinmai 47 were salt-tolerant varieties; Xindong 20, Xinchun 20, and Zhoumai 27were moderately salt-tolerant varieties; other varieties are salt-intolerant varieties. Theresults of salt tolerance at seedling stage indicated that Xindong 22, Xindong 26 andXiaoyan 22 were salt-tolerant varieties; Xinchun No. 15 was salt-tolerant; and others were moderately salt-tolerant varieties. Therefore, Xindong 22 wheat has reached salttolerance level during germination and seedling stage, and it can be used as apreferred salt-tolerant wheat variety for agricultural extension.(2) The semi-lethal concentration of salt tolerance during wheat germinationwas calculated by the linear regression equation. The results showed that the highersalt tolerance thresholds of Xinchun 18, Xindong 22, Xindong 20 and Zhoumai 27were 308, 291, 287 and 285 m mol·L-1, respectively. Consistent with the results of salttolerance identification and evaluation, all of them were determined as salt-tolerantwheat varieties. Therefore, the half-lethal concentration of salt tolerance can be usedas a salt threshold to compare the salt tolerance of wheat during germination.(3) In this paper, the wheat was treated with salt stress in greenhouse waterculture, and the changes of seedling root length, plant height, dry weight, fresh weightand other growth indexes under salt stress were studied. The experimental resultsshowed that under the NaCl (300 m mol·L-1) stress, the root length shortened by 47 %,the plant height decreased by 31 %, the fresh weight and dry weight of abovegrounddecreased by 72 % and 57 %, the fresh weight and dry weight of undergrounddecreased by 81 % and 72 %,respectively. Therefore, when wheat is exposed to saltstress during the seedling stage, the decrement of dry matter accumulation in theunderground part was significantly higher than that in the ground.(4) Cold stratification or cold stratification at different salinities dramaticallyincreased germination of both wheat varieties at relative high germination salinity(200 ~300 m mol·L-1 NaCl), but the promotion effect is reduced with the increase ofsalinity concentration. However, osmopriming with different concentrations of NaCldid not improve salinity tolerance of wheat seeds.

Subject Area生物工程
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/15002
Collection研究系统_荒漠环境研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张磊. 新疆小麦种质资源耐盐性评价及提高种子耐盐性方法探究[D]. 新疆乌鲁木齐. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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