Thesis Advisor周智彬 ; 胡顺军
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword古尔班通古特沙漠 毛管上升水 毛管水最大上升高度 潜水蒸发
Abstract毛管上升水的运动特性是划分固沙植物水分来源的重要依据。本文采用野外试验与室内实验相结合、室内外实(试)验与理论分析相结合的方法,研究了古尔班通古特沙漠南缘风沙土土壤水分变化特征、毛管上升水运动规律及毛管水最大上升高度,推导了潜水极限蒸发强度 Emax 和地下水埋深 H 的关系,确定了毛管上升补给速率(潜水蒸发)达到最大值时的临界地下水埋深,结果表明: (1)不同地下水埋深区域上层土壤(0 ~ 150 cm)的土壤含水量均表现出较为明显的季节变化:3 ~ 5 月是土壤水分的补给期,6 ~ 9 月是土壤水分的消耗期,10 月 ~ 次年 2 月是土壤水分的补给与稳定期。地下水浅埋区土壤含水量在垂直方向上可分为3 个层次:0 ~ 100 cm 左右为土壤水分活跃层,100 ~ 270 cm 左右为土壤水分次活跃层,270 cm 以下土层为土壤水分相对稳定层;地下水深埋区可分为5 个层次:0 ~ 110 cm 为活跃层,110 ~ 560 cm 第一次活跃层,560 ~ 710 cm 第一稳定层,710 ~ 790 cm 第二次活跃层,790 cm 至地下水面为相对稳定层。 (2)古尔班通古特沙漠南缘风沙土毛管水上升高度随着时间的增加而增加;上升速率随着时间的延长迅速下降并逐渐趋于零;毛管上升累计补给量随时间的变化趋势与毛管水上升高度随时间变化的特征基本一致;毛管上升累计补给量与毛管水上升高度呈正相关。自然蒸散发条件下,古尔班通古特沙漠南缘地下水深埋区毛管水最大上升高度为 250 ~ 290 cm,地下水浅埋区毛管水最大上升高度为215 cm 左右。土面蒸发及地表无水汽通量条件下地下水浅埋区均质壤质砂土毛管水的最大上升高度分别为 114.12 cm 和 135.90 cm。海森公式的经验常数 C 为3.18×10-5 m2。湿润锋处的有效基质吸力为 66.59 ~ 125.35 cm 之间。 (3)参数 n 等于 5 和 6 时潜水极限蒸发强度 Emax 和地下水埋深 H 的关系为Emax = 1.396·a·H-5 和 Emax = 1.3188·a·H-6。古尔班通古特沙漠南缘北沙窝试验地地下水浅埋区壤质砂土 Emax 和 H 的关系为 Emax = 0.0034·H-4.8169,毛管上升补给速率(潜水蒸发)达到最大值时的临界地下水埋深为 0.46 m。
Other AbstractThe movement characteristic of capillary rising water is an important basis for classifying water sources of sand-fixing plants. The methods of combination of filed with laboratory experiments, and experiments with theoretical analysis were used to research the characteristics of soil moisture change, movement of capillary rising water and the maximum height of capillary rising water of aeolian sandy soil in the southern edge of the Gurbantunggut Desert, to deduced the relationship between the limit phreatic evaporation intensity (Emax) and the burial depth of groundwater (H) and to determine the critical groundwater depth while the replenish rate of capillary rising water reaches the maximum value in this article. The results showed that: (1) The soil moisture content of the upper soil (0 ~ 150 cm) , in the region of different groundwater depth, shows an obvious seasonal changes: The variation of soil moisture could be divided into three periods: soil water gaining period (from March to May), soil water consumed period (from June to October), soil water replenished and stabilized period (from November to February the following year). The vertical change of soil moisture content in the region of shallow groundwater depth can be divided into active layer(0 ~ 100 cm), sub-active layer(100 ~ 270 cm) and relatively stable layer(below 270 cm), while the region of deeper groundwater depth, the vertical change of soil moisture content can be divided into active layer(0 ~ 110 cm), first sub-active layer(110 ~ 560 cm), first relatively stable layer(560 ~ 710 cm), second sub-active layer(710 ~ 790 cm) and second relatively stable layer(below 790 cm). (2) For the sandy soil in the southern edge of Gurbantunggut Desert, the movement characteristics of capillary rising water are: The height of capillary rising water increases with time. The rising rate of capillary water decreases rapidly and tends to be zero with the extension of time. The variation trend of cumulative capillary water supply with time under different groundwater depths is basically consistent with that of capillary water rising height with time. Besides, there was a positive correlation between the height of capillary rise water and the cumulative supply of capillary rise. Under natural evapotranspiration conditions, the maximum height of capillary rising water in the buried area of deep underground water is distributed from 250 to 290 cm, while it is about 215 cm in the area of shallow groundwater table. The maximum rising height of capillary water in the shallow groundwater buried area was 114.12cm and 135.90 cm, respectively, under the condition of surface evaporation and no water vapor flux on the surface. The empirical constant C of Hazen's formula is 3.18×10-5 m2. The effective matric suction at the wetting front was 66.59 ~ 125.35 cm. (3) When parameter n is equal to 5 and 6, the relationship between the limit phreatic evaporation intensity (Emax) and the burial depth of groundwater (H) is as follows: Emax = 1.396·a·H-5 and Emax = 1.3188·a·H-6. And the relationship between Emax and H of loam sandy soil in the shallow groundwater burial area of study area is Emax = 0.0034·H-4.8169, and the critical groundwater depth is 0.46 m while the replenish rate of capillary rising water reaches the maximum value.
Subject Area恢复生态学
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郑博文. 古尔班通古特沙漠南缘风沙土毛管上升水运动特性[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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