EGI OpenIR
盐碱地咸水灌溉条件下几种荒漠植物的适应性研究
Alternative TitleAdaptability of Several Desert Plants under Salt Water Irrigation Conditions
张静
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor徐新文
2019-06-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline农学硕士
Keyword土壤盐渍化 灌溉模式 灌溉周期 表型生长 叶绿素荧光 Soil salinization Irrigation method Irrigation cycle Phenotypic growth Chlorophyll fluorescence
Abstract干旱区土壤盐渍化条件下,土壤含盐量是植物正常生长的一个主要障碍因子,而灌溉量和灌溉水质又是控制植物正常生长的主要措施。因此聚焦盐渍化土地咸水灌溉条件下植物的抗盐生理与响应过程研究, 有助于耐盐植物的选育及其在盐碱地综合治理和生态植被恢复中的应用。光合作用是植物生长和生产的最基本的关键因素,运用快速叶绿素荧光诱导动力学能够快速无损伤的探测植物叶片光合机构 PSⅡ的状态, 同时, 叶绿素是光合作用的重要物质, 能够综合反映到植物表型生长水平上, 因此也是评价植物抗逆性强弱的重要指标。本文以极具耐盐耐旱的荒漠植物梭梭、大果白刺、唐古特白刺为主要研究对象,在轻度、强度盐渍化土壤上种植幼苗,控制 3 个灌溉周期和 2 种灌溉模式,将其交互实验设计。通过室外、 室内实验定量测量,研究植物的表型生长指标(株高、基茎、新枝长)、光合色素含量(叶绿素 a、叶绿素 b、总叶绿素含量)、丙二醛含量和叶绿素快速荧光诱导动力学参数的响应过程,揭示不同植物在不同因素及交互作用影响下的变化特征和响应机制, 探讨植物的适应特性以及最佳的管理模式, 主要研究结果如下:1) 在土壤盐渍化情况下, 梭梭、大果白刺、唐古特白刺在所有指标上都表现一致, 在强度盐渍化(8.2g/kg)条件下生长状态均好于轻度盐渍化(2.1g/kg)。2)灌溉周期对梭梭、大果白刺、唐古特白刺生长的影响,均是在 30d 的灌溉周期下生长状态最佳,具体表现为:梭梭在 30d>60d>15d,两种白刺在 30d>15d>60d。同白刺相比,可以看出梭梭耐旱性强,在延长灌溉周期下 30d-60d 都能生长。3) 纯咸水灌溉和咸淡交替灌溉模式下,对两种白刺都有极显著的影响,咸淡交替灌溉模式要好于纯咸水灌溉。4) 梭梭表型、叶绿素指标显示咸淡交替灌溉好于咸水灌溉,但并无显著差异,而从荧光角度来看正好相反,即咸水灌溉好于咸淡交替灌溉,因此需要进一步讨论。5) 在土壤盐渍化程度< 8.2g/kg 时,梭梭、唐古特白刺、大果白刺均可采用 30d灌溉周期+咸淡交替模式进行造林。综合结果分析, 分别针对三种不同植物,选择最佳灌溉方式组合。 在轻度盐渍化(2.1g/kg) 条件下,梭梭、大果白刺和唐古特白刺均适合采取 30d 灌溉周期+咸淡交替灌溉管理方式。 强度盐渍化(8.2g/kg)条件下, 大果白刺和唐古特白刺在 30d 灌溉周期+咸淡交替灌溉下生长最优, 梭梭宜采取 30d 灌溉周期+咸水灌溉的管理方式。
Other AbstractUnder the condition of soil salinization in arid area, soil salinity is a major obstacleto the normal growth of plants, and irrigation method and irrigation water quality arethe main measures to control the normal growth of plants. Therefore, focusing on thesalt-tolerant physiology and response process of salinized plants under salt waterirrigation conditions, it is helpful for the breeding of salt-tolerant plants and theirapplication in the comprehensive management of Salinized soil and ecologicalvegetation restoration.Photosynthesis is the most basic key factor for plant growth and production.Chlorophyll rapid fluorescence induction kinetics can quickly and non-invasivelydetect the state of plant leaf photosynthetic apparatus PSII. At the same time,chlorophyll is an important substance of photosynthesis and can be comprehensivelyreflected to plants. The phenotypic growth level is therefore an important indicator forevaluating the stress resistance of plants growth status.In this experiment, we used the salt-tolerant and drought-tolerant desert plantsHaloxylon amdendron, Nitraria roborowskii and Nitraria tangutorum as the mainresearch objects. The seedlings were planted on two different salinization Salinized soil,and controlled three irrigation cycles and two irrigation method and use interactiveexperiment design way. Quantitative measurement of outdoor and indoor experimentsto study plant phenotypic growth indicators (height, stem, branch), photosyntheticpigment content (Chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content), MDA contentand chlorophyll fluorescence induction of the response process. Reveals thecharacteristics and response mechanisms of different plants under different factors andinteractions. Explore plant adaptation characteristics and optimal managementmodels .The main research results are as follows:1) In the case of soil salinization, Haloxylon ammodendron, Nitraria roborowskii, andNitraria tangutorum showed the same performance in all indicators, and under the condition of intensity salinization (8.2g/kg) the growth state was better than mildSalinization (2.1g/kg).2) The effects of irrigation cycle on the growth of Haloxylon ammodendron, Nitrariaroborowskii and Nitraria tangutorum were the best in 30d. The specific performancewas as follows: Haloxylon ammodendron grew in 30-day>60-day >15-day, and twokinds of plants grew in 30-day > 15-day > 60-day. Compared with the two kind of plants,the Haloxylon ammodendron has strong drought tolerance and can grow from 30 daysto 60 days irrigation cycle.3) Both pure saline water irrigation and saline-dilute alternate irrigation have significanteffects on Nitraria, and saline-dilute alternate irrigation is better than saline waterirrigation.4) Haloxylon phenotype and chlorophyll index show that saline-dilute alternateirrigation is better than salt water irrigation, but there was no significant difference. Onthe contrary, from the perspective of fluorescence, saline-water irrigation was betterthan saline-light alternating irrigation, so further discussion is needed.5) When the degree of soil salinization is < 8.2g/kg, Haloxylon ammodendron, Nitrariatangutorum and Nitraria roborowskii can be afforested by 30-day irrigation cycle plussaline-water irrigation mode.Based on the analysis of the comprehensive results, the best combination ofirrigation methods was selected for three different plants. Under mild salinization(2.1g/kg), Haloxylon ammodendron, Nitraria roborowskii and Nitraria tangutorum areall suitable for 30-day irrigation cycle plus saline-dilute alternate irrigationmanagement. Under intensity salinization (8.2g/kg), the Nitraria roborowskii and theNitraria tangutorum grow best under the 30-day irrigation cycle plus saline-dilutealternate irrigation, and the Haloxylon ammodendron should adopt the 30-day irrigationcycle plus salt water irrigation management method.
Subject Area水土保持与荒漠化防治
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/15274
Collection中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
研究系统
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张静. 盐碱地咸水灌溉条件下几种荒漠植物的适应性研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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