Egide Hakorimana
Thesis Advisor陈曦
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword供水公用事业 水资源可达性 GIS 欧氏距离 遥感 访谈 Water Supply Utilities Water accessibility GIS Euclidian distance Remote sensing interview
Abstract供水能力下降已成为环境和健康领域的一个全球性问题。 2015 年《世界水资源开发报告》估算,到 2025 年全球人口的三分之二将面临水资源短缺,如果这一危机不能得到有效地解决,水资源短缺与水环境恶化不仅会使可持续发展的前景成为泡影,还可能威胁到人类的生存。全球人口激增、气候变化和城市化导致农业用水、工业用水和生活用水增加,尤其在非洲农村及偏远地区,饮用水供水设施的建设速度远不及呈指数增长人口的水资源需求。本研究以卢旺达南部润达地区为例,调查了润达地区水资源与饮用水供应设施的现状和问题,研究了居民分布与饮用水供应设施间的空间关系,分析了饮用水管理、社会经济发展等对区域饮用水可达性的影响。这项研究将为当地政府推进区域饮用水安全和供水设施的完善提供理论和技术支持,为解决当地居民饮用水需求与供水设施不足的矛盾提供可行方案。论文基于遥感影像、 GIS 技术和统计数据,开展了野外调研和居民问卷调查,掌握了卢旺达南部润达地区的饮用水供水系统空间分布,分析了供水系统空间分布与居民取水特征间的关系,研究了饮用水管理、社会经济发展等对区域饮用水可达性的影响。研究结果显示,大多数居民居住在远离当地供水系统和饮用水源的区域,只有部分供水系统可以满足少部分居民的用水需求,其中在有效供水设施 50 m 范围内居住的居民只占 14.95%,50-500 m 范围内居住的居民占 6.67%, 500-1000 m 范围内居住的居民占 5.95%, 1000-1500 m 范围内居住的居民占 70.99%, 大于 1500 m 范围内居住的居民占 1.44%,且大部分供水系统设施(水井、管道、储水罐、水龙头等)由于维护不当而无法有效供水。润达地区地形主要以丘陵为主, 60%的居民居住在丘陵顶部,由于地形因素的限制,加上经济支持不足和缺乏有效的管理,实现居民饮用水供水系统建设和居民水资源分配是一项很具挑战的任务。尽管该地区降雨量充足,但很少有家庭拥有收集雨水的设施。除了与人民贫困和供水系统供应有关的问题外,当地政府在水资源管理方面也缺乏经验。所有这些因素综合作用使得润达地区饮用水供给能力较低。未来在改善润达地区饮用水供给能力方面,本研究为政府和决策者提出了可供参考的具体建议:(1)在当地建立雨水收集系统,指导居民如何收集和利用雨水;(2)将部分供水能力较弱区域的居民搬迁至供水能力强的区域;(3)在供水能力低的区域新增供水设施满足居民用水需求;(4)改善现有供水设施,考虑新建水泵系统将低处的水提升至高处,满足丘陵顶部 60%居民的用水需求。
Other AbstractThe aim of this study was to assess the spatial dispersal of drinking water supply utilities andissues related to its accessibility in Runda sector, a suburban area of Rwanda. The researchproblem focuses on why people in Runda sector perpetual problems related to water accessibility.The research focuses on physical and socio-economic factors affecting people’s access to water.The main idea behind this study is the dissection of the relationship between people’s access towater for different needs and the availability of water supply utilities.In order to understand the fundamental causes of water accessibility in Runda, the generalaim is to investigate and document the spatial dispersal of drinking water utilities with the mainfactors affecting their accessibility according to different aspects in the study area. The researchhas been undertaken within a context of sustainability, focusing on the relationships between thepopulation and the environment.Therefore, the research target considers discussions putting water resources and the access towater utilities to a considerable level. In order to address the research aim, both quantitative andqualitative approaches have been used. The quantitative approach is used to map wateravailability while the qualitative approach is used to get qualitative information on how thepopulation are accessing the available water supply utilities. We have used quantitative datawhich are satellite images, as well as other secondary sources, which include spatial andstatistical data collected from different institutions, and reports. By the field work in our studyarea, we have collected qualitative data which is the information from structured interviews tothe local population. Data analysis was achieved through the modelling with the GeographicInformation Systems (Euclidian distance tool) and remote sensing, as well as the interpretation ofinterviews.An important finding is that the majority of people live far away from local water supplyutilities, where we have recorded statistically that people living within 50 meters from thenearest WSU are 14,95%, those living between 50-500 meters are 6.67%, from 500 to 1000meters are 5.95%, those living between 1000-1500 meters are 70.99% and more than 1500meters represent 1.44%. In addition to the limited number and the location of available localwater supply utilities, most of them are being depleted due to inappropriate maintenance.However, the major part of the sector is hilly area, and due to the lack of financial means, it ischallenge to distribute water to the households situated in the top of the area which representabout 60% of the population of Runda sector. Due to poor maintenance, the majority of theavailable piped water supply utilities and water tanks failed. Even if the area represents enoughrainfall rate, very few households have the facilities of rainwater harvesting. Apart from theproblems related to the poverty of people and the availability of water supply utilities, the localpeople are not involved enough in water resources management. In the future, in term ofimproving the drinking water supply capacity in Runda, this study proposes specificrecommendations for the government and policy makers: (1) Establishing a local rainwaterharvesting system to guide residents in how to collect and use rainwater; (2) Residents of someareas with weak water supply capacity will relocate to areas with strong water supply capacity;(3) Add water supply facilities to meet the water demand of residents in areas with low watersupply capacity; (4) Improve existing water supply facilities, consider lowering new water pumpsystems.
Subject Area地图学与地理信息系统
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Egide Hakorimana. 饮用水供应设施的空间扩散调查研究---以卢旺达南部润达地区为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Related Services
Recommend this item
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[Egide Hakorimana]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[Egide Hakorimana]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[Egide Hakorimana]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.