Thesis Advisor李兰海
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学博士
Keyword基加利市 滑坡,Nyabihu 区 脆弱性,卢旺达西部 Kigali city Landslide Nyabihu district Vulnerability Western Rwanda
Abstract在全球范围内,日益增长的灾害发生频率正影响着人们的生活,这一现象在贫困和发展中地区尤为突出。当地社区参与减灾计划的制定和决策有助于最大限度地减少脆弱性。此外,综合包括社会、经济、人体健康和环境等多维度的灾害脆弱性评估对于降低未来灾害出现的可能性及其影响,同时对建立人们的信心具有重要的意义。在卢旺达,基加利市和西北部地区主要受洪水和山体滑坡的影响,这些都是有记录的主要灾害种类。因此,加强社区灾害意识和尽量减少灾害脆弱性将降低风险和损失。该研究的主要目的是区分滑坡脆弱性并评估卢旺达正在实施的减少灾害脆弱性政策的有效性。本论文以卢旺达 Nyabihu 区、基加利市和西卢旺达省为研究区,针对滑坡脆弱性相关问题展开研究;基于卢旺达农村和城市地区获得的结果,有助于决策者可以在整个卢旺达境内制定减灾和减少脆弱性措施。关于西卢旺达省,作者使用层次分析法(AHP)模型来比较脆弱性因子的权重,排名和贡献。使用的因素是海拔高度,坡度,人口密度,通信工具,土地利用类型,降雨量,学校数量和保健中心。然后,以地理信息系统(GIS)为工具,根据影响因素,对西卢旺达省脆弱程度的空间分异进行了研究。实地访问了在 Nyabihu 区的 240 名受访者,并使用了调查问卷。作者采访了来自基加利市的五十六(56)名受访者。结果表明,在西卢旺达省,坡度(25.4%)、降雨量(18.7%)、海拔(14.9%)、土地利用类型(13.7%)以及人口密度(11.3%)是影响滑坡脆弱性的主要因数。Nyabihu地区的调查结果显示,当地居民可以辨别所发生的灾害。然而,政府在对社区更新灾害发生情况方面的能力不足,同时未能把社区内拥有的知识基础考虑近来。在基加利市的访谈结果表明,抗灾教育(DRE)在形式上更多地开始于中学而非小学。此外,教师们的学识并不能胜任向学生们传授抗灾知识的工作。本研究是评估卢旺达社区灾害意识、减灾政策和脆弱性水平的首次尝试,其独特性和贡献在于可以利用本地社区关于灾害的知识以及结合环境和社会因子来区分脆弱性。作相信本研究的发现会帮助决策制定者和利益相关者更好地认识当地社区对于减灾和降低脆弱性所拥有基本技能和知识的水平。基于本文的研究结果,建议提高灾害意识,减缓和恢复能力的战略措施包括:(1)确保提供适当的教材和工作人员,并从小就开始开设减灾防灾相关课程,(2)批准/推广梯田、农林业和雨水收集来减少径流,洪水和山体滑坡的主要原因,(3)定期进行脆弱性评估,确保政府与公民之间及时分享信息。
Other AbstractGlobally, the growing trend of disaster occurrence is affecting community’s livelihoods,and the poor and developing regions are the severely impacted. The involvement of localcommunity in decision making and its engagement in disaster reduction schedule helps tominimize the vulnerability. In addition, the integration of multi-dimensional disastervulnerability assessments including social, economic, human health and the environment is ofgreat significance for reducing the likelihood of future disasters and building people'sresilience.In Rwanda, Kigali city and northwestern are the areas largely affected by flood andlandslide, the major recorded disasters. Thus, vulnerability assessment would strengthen thecommunity disaster awareness and lower future disaster occurrence and associated losses.The main objective of this study was to differentiate community landslide vulnerability andevaluate the effectiveness of disaster and vulnerability reduction policies being implementedin Rwanda.The current study covered the entire Rwandan territory, western province, Nyabihudistrict, Kigali city of Rwanda. This helped to obtain results from both rural and urban areasof Rwanda which can be used by policy makers while developing disaster and vulnerabilityreduction measures for the entire Rwandan territory. This study utilized the BivariateStatistical Index (SI) model to reveal the relationship between landslide occurrence and itstriggering factors. After this exercise, the Geographic Information System (GIS) spreadlandslide hazard over Rwanda. The results indicated that the northern and western provincesare largely prone to landslide hazard in Rwanda. Thereafter, the author conducted communitylandslide vulnerability assessment in western Rwanda.Regarding the western Rwanda, the author employed the Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) model to compare the weights, ranks and contributions of landslide vulnerabilityfactors. The employed factors were altitude, slope angles, population density, possession ofcommunication tools, land use, rainfall, number of schools and health centers. The GISspatially differentiated the vulnerability dimensions throughout western Rwanda based on theinfluencing factors. Thereafter, the author evaluated the measures used to reduce disastervulnerability. The author conducted a field visit and surveyed 240 respondents by using aquestionnaire in Nyabihu district. In Kigali city, the author interviewed fifty six (56) informants selected from school, and the Ministry of Education and Ministry of DisasterManagement.The results indicated that slope (25.4%), rainfall (18.7%), altitude (14.9%), land use andcover (13.7%) and population density (11.3%) are the primary factors which influencecommunity landslide vulnerability in the western Rwanda. The survey conducted in Nyabihudistrict showed that the local people can differentiate the occurring disasters. However, thegovernment does not update the community on disaster occurrence likelihood and fails toconsider its indigenous knowledge.In most cases, the government operates alone and this leads to increasing thecommunity’s vulnerability to disaster since people are not aware of the types of mechanismto use for their protection. In addition, the results from Kigali city showed that disasterresilience education (DRE) is theoretically and largely provided at secondary schools than atprimary schools, highly attended. And teachers are not well qualified for delivering DRE.This again increases disaster illiteracy, one of the factors driving to people’s vulnerability.This research was the first attempt to assess community vulnerability dimensions, itsdisaster awareness and the effectiveness of the disaster reduction policies under execution inRwanda. Its uniqueness and contribution relies in the use of people’s disaster knowledge andcombination of environmental and social factors for vulnerability differentiation. Also theconsideration of rural and urban areas can be reference for the entire country’s disasterreduction policy formulation. Hence, the study will help policy makers and stakeholders torecognize the extent to which the local community is prepared for reducing the future disasteroccurrence and minimizing the vulnerability.The strategic measures suggested for enhancing disaster awareness, mitigation andresilience are to: (1) ensure the availability of appropriate teaching materials and staff, andstart disaster courses from early age, (2) support the use of terraces, agroforestry and rainharvest to reduce the runoff; the key cause of flooding and landslide, and (3) conductvulnerability assessment on a regular basis and ensure timely information sharing betweengovernment and citizens.
Subject Area自然地理学
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
LAMEK NAHAYO. 卢旺达社区滑坡脆弱性评估[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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