Thesis Advisor李耀明
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword塔吉克斯坦 草原 牧场 气候变化 草地生产力 牧场管理 Tajikistan Grassland Pasture Climate Change Grass Productivity Pasture Management
Abstract塔吉克斯坦是典型的山地国家,畜牧业是其发展的重要经济支柱。塔吉克斯坦的牧场和干草场占地 380 多万公顷,天然牧草主要分布在山区,其特点是多样性高,对畜牧业的发展具有重要的战略意义,亦是牧民的主要生存资源。近年来,塔吉克斯坦牲畜存栏量急剧增加,同时受气候变化和人类活动的影响,草场退化严重,植物组分发生明显变化,优良牧草比例显著下降, 荆棘类和有毒类杂草大量滋生。草场的退化对塔吉克斯坦畜牧业的发展造成了一定的影响,因此为了了解塔吉克斯坦草场的现状,以及如何防控草场的退化, 2018 年 4 月我们选择了 17 个野外调查点,同时选择了 4 个定位点(Balkhi、 Luchob、Tabakchi、 Ziddi),对塔吉克斯坦的春、夏、秋、冬牧场进行了野外调查,并对 4 个定位点实施施肥管理, 施肥处理主要为添加氮素和磷元素,共 5 个处理,分别为 N3(添加 CO(NH2)2 - 6.5g/m2), P3(P2O5 - 6.75g/m2), N3P3(CO(NH2)2 -6.5g/m2, P2O5 - 6.75g/m2), N9P3(CO(NH2)2 - 19,5g/m2, P2O5 - 6.75g/m2) 和对照,来探讨塔吉克斯塔草场在气候变化背景下的退化现状,以及管理措施对草场退化的防控。在这项研究中,我们研究的内容是:一、不同植物区系和环境条件下主要植物种类的生物学和环境特征研究;二、确定不同环境条件下特色植物群落物种丰富度和生产力的变化程度;三、 测定施肥(N, P)影响条件下草地物种丰富度和生产力的变化;四、 不同生态条件下半萨王纳稀树草原植物群落中豆科植物物种丰富度和及其对生物生产力影响的研究。结果表明,塔吉克斯坦牧场的优势植物为: Carex pachystylis, Aegilopstriuncialis, Cynodon dactylon, Prangos pabularia 和 Geranium collinum。土壤含水量、海拔高度、土壤 NH4 显著影响塔吉克草地物种丰富度,海拔越高土壤含水量越高,物种丰富度亦越高;随着土壤 NH4+含量的增加,物种丰富度降低,说明某些物种在 N 素的竞争中占优势,造成其他物种的消失;塔吉克斯坦草场物种丰富度在 2-11 种/m2,而南部库尔干秋别地区,物种丰富度远低于其他地区,物种丰富度仅为 2-3 种/m2,主要原因是该地区 2018 年降水稀少,是近 50年来最为干旱的年份;随着海拔的升高,草地地上生物量(AGB)呈增加趋势。AGB 与土壤总氮(TN),土壤总钾(TK),土壤总磷(TP)含量呈正相关。对比围栏内外牧草地上生物量可知,围栏外显著低于围栏内;通过对 50 个牧民家庭的调查问卷调查结果显示,超过一半的被调查家庭全年在同一牧场放牧,这是塔吉克斯坦牧场退化的主要原因之一。施肥管理结果表明,土壤的 N:P<14,因此氮素是限制塔吉克牧场生长的重要元素,而添加氮素的结果亦与此相呼应,添加氮素后牧草地上生物量显著高于对照,并且 N9P3 处理牧草地上生物量最高,这种效应在降雨较多的地区(Ziddi、 Balkhi)高于降雨较少的地区(Tabakchi)。综上所述,过度放牧是塔吉克斯坦草地退化的主要因素, 年降雨量和土壤氮素含量调控牧草的地上生物量,因此围栏和施肥是塔吉克斯坦防控草场退化的重要的管理措施。除此之外,可以采取积极措施教育当地牧民, 使其意识到草地保护的重要性,并且参与管理草场,从而实现草场的可持续利用。
Other AbstractThe grassland ecosystem covers more than 4 million hectares in Tajikistan andprovides more than 8 million livestock (Ministry of Agriculture). It is the main foragesource of animal husbandry. Currently, because of overgrazing of this ecosystem, theherbage there has been highly degraded, the botanical composition changed, withincreasing portions of thorny and poisonous plants. As a result, the grass standsdegradation occurred, the productivity of forage plants and forage reserve on pasturessignificantly decreased. Unregulated grazing not only effects on the phytocenosescomposition in pastures but also significantly changes the nature of the ecologicalsituation. In the consequence of the long-term grazing, the soil cover becamecompacted or destroyed, and special forms of “pasture micro-relief” have beenappeared in grasslands. Therefor the studies were conducted on the four stationarysites (Balkhi, Luchob, Tabakchi, Ziddi). Field investigations were carried out on thespring, summer, autumn and winter pastures in Tajikistan, and fertilizationmanagement was carried out on the four sites. We studied different doses of nitrogenagainst the background of phosphate fertilizers; N3 treatment- need (CO(NH2)2 -6.5g/m2); P3 (P2O5 - 6.75g/m2), N3P3 (CO(NH2)2 - 6.5g/m2, P2O5 - 6.75g/m2),N9P3(CO(NH2)2 - 19,5g/m2, P2O5 - 6.75g/m2).In this study, we investigated the dynamics and productivity of grasscommunities in the foothill and alpine pastures of Tajikistan in the face of changingclimatic conditions and anthropogenic impacts. The objectives of the research were:i. study the biological and environmental features of the main plant speciesin different phytocenoses and environmental conditions;ii. determination of the degree of change in species richness andproductivity of characteristic phytocenoses in various environmentalconditions;iii. changes in species richness and productivity of grassland under theinfluence of fertilization (N, P)iv. investigation of the species richness of legumes and their effect onbiomass productivity in semi-savannah plant communities under variousenvironmental conditions.The results showed that the dominant plants in Tajikistan were: Carexpachystylis, Aegilops triuncialis, Cynodon dactylon, Prangos pabularia andGeranium collinum. Soil water content (SWC), altitude, soil NH4 significantly affectsthe species richness (SR) of Tajikistan grasslands. With increasing altitude, the SWCand the SR also increased. With increasing the NH4 + content of soil, the speciesrichness decreases, indicating that these species predominate in the competition of N,causing the disappearance of other species; in the Kurgan region of southernTajikistan, the species richness is much lower than other regions. The species richnessis only 2-3 /m2, mainly because in 2018, the precipitation is rare, which is the mostdrought year in the past 50 years. With the increasing the altitude the AGB alsoincreased and the AGB showed the positive relationship with total soil nitrogen (TN),total soil potassium (TK) and total soil phosphorus (TP).The results of questionnaire (50 families were asked) showed that more thanhalf of the surveyed families (72%) herd their livestock all year round on the samepastures. This is one of the main reasons for pasture degradation in Tajikistan. Theeffects of overgrazing can have major and long-term impacts on plant communities.According to the results of fertilizer application, the pasture is highly degradedunder the influence of overgrazing. On open-air pastures, the average yield of theaboveground part was 13.6 c / ha, which was lower than that of the field station:control area (N0P0) - 3.3 times, fertilization (N9P3) - 6.8 times.Restoration of the grass stands diversity and density will protect the soil fromdestruction and significantly increase the using efficiency for water and heat resources.To ensure the sustainable development of animal husbandry economy, besides theneed for unified pasture management at the national level, it is also important to takeactive measures to educate the local population and actively participate in themanagement and sustainable use of natural resources, including pasture.This work continues and identifies the causes of pasture deterioration, developstechnologies for restoring the composition and forage productivity of grasscommunities.
Subject Area自然地理学
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
OKHONNIYOZOV MEKHROVAR. 气候变化下塔吉克斯坦南部草地生态系统的管理策略[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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