Alternative TitleThe temporal and spatial distribution of heavy metal concentrations in spring water in Rwanda
Thesis Advisor陈曦
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword重金属污染指数 水质 泉水 空间分布 卢旺达 heavy metal pollution index spring water spatial distribution water quality Rwanda
Abstract重金属污染物是全球性的环境治理难题,它们对水生生物和人类健康造成严重的负面影响。在发展中国家和欠发达国家, 饮用水的质量仍然是最需要关注的问题。为了保障人类健康和幸福生活,饮用水的质量需要利用可靠的适用技术来进行实时监测和评估。 在卢旺达,饮用水的处理和供应是由国有自来水公司(WASAC)承担,不过由于资源和设施的局限, 它不能为所有家庭提供自来水供应。因此,没有享受自来水服务的家庭依靠天然的水资源(如泉水)来满足他们的日常用水需求。然而,这些泉水的水质情况及其时空变化没有被系统的研究。因此, 本研究在卢旺达选择 9 个泉水取水点采集了 2017 年旱季和雨季期间的水样,测量了水源中的重金属含量,并利用重金属污染指数模型和地理信息系统,引入降水、 海拔高度、 坡度和人口密度等影响水源污染的因素,分析了饮用水中重金属元素的浓度季节性和空间变化特征并对其进行了分类。 结果表明,雨季(178.48)和旱季(151.92)的 HPI 值高于世界卫生组织为饮用水中重金属指数设定的标准值 100。对泉水中铜,铁,锰和锌的调查表明,铁和锰的平均值超过了世界卫生组织的饮用水标准。在雨季期间, 在城镇和农村区的污染物均很容易转移到水体中,而在干旱时期, 在农村区的污染物的扩散程度要比城镇区域更大。因此,为了确保获得安全的饮用水,建议采取适当的城市废物和废水管理措施的同时应加强雨水收集、 农林复合和阶级梯田等措施的推广, 减少农村和城市地区在雨季的污染进入径流的量,以便保障泉水达到健康饮用水的标准。
Other AbstractHeavy metal pollutants are a global menace, causing negative consequences onaquatic organisms and human wellbeing. The quality of drinking water sources remainsa major concern in developing and under-developed countries worldwide; therefore, theproper techniques for monitoring and assessing water quality at different sources onhuman health must be developed. The treatment and supply of drinking water inRwanda is carried out by Water and Sanitation Corporation (WASAC), a state-ownedpublic company. However, it is not able to supply water to all households. Consequently,the non-serviced households depend on natural water resources like springs to meettheir water requirements. Nevertheless, water quality in these springs is barely known.Therefore, this study assessed and compared heavy metals in drinking water sourcesbetween dry and rainy seasons of 2017 using Heavy metal Pollution Index model, andGeographic Information Systems to reveal the spatial distribution of water qualitywithin the considered water sources of springs in Rwanda.The Heavy metal Pollution Index (HPI) has been used in this study to classify theheavy metal according to their concentration in drinking water sources. Theconcentration of copper, iron, manganese and zinc were investigated in nine springs’water while rainfall, elevation, slope, land cover/land use and population density areselected as factors which influence the pollution in water sources. The results showedthat HPI values during the rainy (178.48) and dry (151.92) seasons were higher than100, the standard set by the World Health Organization for the heavy metal index indrinking water while the mean value of Iron and Manganese exceeded the drinkingwater guidelines of the World Health Organization than other heavy metal measured inthe study area. The analysis also indicated that pollutants are easily transported intowater bodies during the rainy season both in urban and rural areas a and urban areaproduce more pollutants both in rainy and dry season than rural area. Thus, to ensureaccess to safe drinking water, appropriate urban waste and wastewater management issuggested together with rain harvesting, agroforestry and bench terraces approachwhich would help to minimize pollutant runoff during the rainy season in both rural andurban areas.
Subject Area地图学与地理信息系统
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Valentine MUKANYANDWI. 卢旺达泉水中重金属浓度的时空分布[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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