Alternative TitleEffect of different restoration methods on the restoration of degraded plant communities in Bogda World Nature Heritage Site
Thesis Advisor严成
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline工程硕士
Keyword博格达 植被恢复 禁牧 覆土厚度 框格客土绿化措施 Bogda World Nature Heritage Site Vegetation Restoration Grazing Prohibition Cover-soil Thickness Concrete Frame Protection and Seeding Measures
Abstract为恢复博格达世界自然遗产地不同类型生态受损区退化植被恢复, 研究了禁牧、 覆土、 框格客土绿化 3 种生态恢复重建措施对不同样地植物群落特征、 生物多样性、 土壤 pH 及养分含量、 草地径流系数的影响。 采用以“空间代时间” 的方法, 分析了不同生态恢复重建措施的恢复效果, 以期为不同类型生态受损区植被生态恢复重建措施提供理论依据和技术支撑。 主要研究结果如下:(1) 禁牧 7a, 退化草地植被盖度、 高度、 地上生物量有明显恢复; 禁牧区草地植物群落的 Margarlef 指数、 Shannon-Wiener 指数和 Simpson 指数都有所提升, 而 Pielou、 Altalo 指数小于放牧区; 禁牧对土壤理化性质也会产生积极影响,禁牧区草地土壤 pH 值减小, 表层土壤有机质、 全氮、 速效氮含量增加; 不同样地径流小区草地径流系数随坡度增大而增大, 禁牧区草地径流系数显著小于放牧区(P<0.05)。 植被和土壤的恢复能有效减缓降雨对地表的侵蚀作用, 很大程度减少地表径流。 禁牧措施可增加草地水土保持功能, 缓解对河道的冲刷作用, 对退化草地生态恢复具有重要意义。(2) 覆土措施能够促进河滩退化草地植被的恢复, 随着覆土厚度的增加,草地植物群落盖度、 高度、 地上生物量、 物种多样性也呈增加趋势; 不同覆土厚度样地草地群落地上生物量与 Shannon-Wiener 多样性指数呈显著正相关(P<0.01)。 综合分析, 相同补播条件下, 覆土 16 cm 是河滩区受损草地植被恢复的适宜土壤厚度。(3) 框格客土绿化样地草本植被群落的盖度、 高度、 地上生物量显著增加;框格客土绿化措施对草本植被群落物种多样性恢复也具有促进作用, 草本植被群落 Margalef 指数、 Shannon-Wiener 指数、 Simpson 指数和 Pielou 指数均有不同程度的提升。 滑坡区受损植被群落虽短时间内不能恢复至原先状态, 但框格客土绿化措施能预防滑坡灾害的再次发生, 有效促进受损植被群落恢复, 并提升遗产地水土保持功能和整体的景观效果。
Other AbstractIn order to restore the degraded vegetation in different types of ecologicaldamaged areas in the Bogda World Nature Heritage Site, three ecological restorationand reconstruction methods: grazing prohibition, four levels of cover-soil, andconcrete frame protection and seeding measures (CFPS) have been implemented. Theeffects of ecological restoration, characteristics of plant community, species diversity,soil pH, surface soil (0-10 cm) nutrient contents and grassland runoff coefficientinfluences under different restoration treatments were compared. The method of the“ time specific” was adopted to analyze the restoration effects of different ecologicalrestoration measures, in order to provide theoretical basis and technical support forvegetation ecological restoration measures in different types of ecologically damagedareas. Main results are as follows:(1) During 7 years, the coverage, height, and the coverage of degraded grasslandplant communities showed significant changes under the grazing prohibition measures.The Margalef index, Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson index of grassland plantcommunities were improved in grazing prohibition area, and Pielou index and Altaloindex were lower than grazing area. Grazing prohibition measures also had a positiveeffect on the physical and chemical properties of surface soil. The soil pH ofgrasslands in grazing prohibition area was reduced. The SOM, TN, AN of surface soilwere increased. The runoff coefficients of grassland in different treatment plotsincreased with the slope. The runoff coefficients of grassland in grazing prohibitionarea were significantly lower than in grazing area (P<0.05). The restoration ofvegetation can effectively reduce the erosion of soil caused by rainfall, and greatlyreduce surface runoff and alleviate the erosion of the river. The results indicated thanthat grazing prohibition has great significance to the ecological restoration ofdegraded grassland.(2) Cover soil can promote the conservation and restoration of the grasslandecosystems. The coverage, height, aboveground biomass of grassland plantcommunity generally increased with the cover-soil thickness. Species diversity ofgrassland plant community increased with the cover-soil thickness. There was asignificant positive correlation between above-ground biomass and Shannon-Wienerindex of different treatments (P<0.01). The result showed that under the same sowingcondition, cover-soil with 16 cm thickness is an appropriate option.(3) The coverage, height, aboveground biomass of grassland plant community inthe concrete frame protection and seeding measures (CFPS) site were significantlyincreased. The species diversity of grassland plant community in the CFPS site wereincreased, Margalef index, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index and Pielou indexof grassland plant community in the CFPS site were increased to varying degrees. Thelandslide area plant community cannot be restored to the original status in a short timeperiod. However, CFPS can effectively prevent the occurrence of landslide disasters,promote the restoration of vegetation communities and species diversity, and enhancethe overall landscape visual effect of the damaged area of the nature heritage site.
Subject Area生物工程
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
田曼. 不同恢复措施对博格达遗产地受损植物群落特征的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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