EGI OpenIR
草原社会-生态系统动态变化及其适应性管理对策研究—以库鲁斯台草原为例
Alternative TitleGrassland Society-Ecosystem Construction and Its Adaptive Management Countermeasures:Taking the Kurustai Grassland as an Example
陈东丽
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor杨德刚
2019-06-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学博士
Keyword草原社会-生态系统 空间特征 制度选择框架 适应性管理 库鲁斯台草原 grassland society-ecological system spatial characteristics institutional change adaptive management Kurustai grassland
Abstract在对草原社会-生态系统具体分析、影响因素和变化特征研究后,形成草原管理中的制度选择分析框架,为区域的可持续发展提出适应性管理的对策。社会-生态系统是一个典型的复杂适应性系统,本文将空间特征评价作为一个重要变量纳入社会-生态系统一般分析框架中,以整个草原社会-生态系统的资源系统、资源单位、用户、管理系统以及他们之间的交互作用和最终对草原社会-生态系统产生的结果进行全要素、多空间和长时间尺度的静态和动态评估来解构草原存在的现实问题和发展特征,以此逼真的刻画人类社会活动与自然生态环境之间的动态耦合关系。 研究发现:根据社会-生态系统分析框架,具体阐述了草原社会-生态系统理论。 将空间特征评估引入草原社会-生态系统评价指标体系中, 来表征草原社会-生态系统中各子系统之间的交互过程和结果。 草原社会-生态系统理论提供了一种研究范式,即从复杂系统论角度对草原社会生态现状和发展趋势全方位研究,对区域如何实现协调发展进行探讨。 从资源系统、资源单位、管理系统和用户四个子系统具体分析了库鲁斯台草原社会-生态系统构成, 总结各子系统存在的问题为:资源系统中草地退化、沙化和盐碱化、 资源单位中的水土竞争矛盾、 管理系统中管理混乱、 和用户生计提升困难等问题。 通过草原空间功能识别、空间协调度和空间自相关的分析发现库鲁斯台草原社会-生态系统各子系统长期以来交互作用的结果为生态空间占比 90.77%、农业空间占比 8.54%和城镇空间占比 0.69%, 空间发展整体处于低水平耦合发展阶段, 协调度处于中等以下水平, 且呈现相似属性集中分布的特征。在库鲁斯台草原社会-生态系统影响认识分析中发现人为因素的影响整体大于自然环境的变化,其中政策变迁的影响最大,特别是在短时间尺度上。 库鲁斯台草原制度变迁过程大致划分为三个阶段,即集体化阶段(1949-1978 年)、开放和私有化阶段(1978-2000 年)和政策导向阶段(2000-2015 年)。 集体化阶段草原社会-生态系统特征为管理部门强调增加牲畜和粮食生产水平, 导致用户的生产行为发生重大变化从畜牧业向农业转移,产权由家族所有变成全民集体所有,形成新的用户群体。开放和私有化阶段最明显的特征为外部饲草料作为资源单位进入草原社会-生态系统,使牲畜的生产与天然草原的质量脱钩。政策导向阶段为: 2008 年以前草原放养量与羊肉价格呈同步增趋势,说明市场因素对草原放养量的影响占主导地位; 但是 2008 年以后政府开始实施各种政策,从此草原放养量和价格水平之间的关系不再明显, 政策效应逐渐凸显。 纵向对比分析草原社会-生态系统中宏观条件的动态变化特征, 集体化向开放和私有化阶段过渡中自然因素的影响逐渐降低, 外部草料作为资源单位引入,改变了牲畜与当地草地条件的相互作用, 产权的变化也极大地改变了生产方式和激励措施。私有化阶段向政策导向型阶段过度中政策、贸易和市场发挥了主导作用,社会-生态系统的变化动力主要来自大量的自上而下的政策和项目实施。提高制度选择能力是实现草原社会-生态系统适宜性管理的重要手段。 从现代局势、预期成本、预期收益和市场环境四个方面具体分析制度选择过程,解构草原社会-生态系统内保留或改变现行规则的决策过程, 主要是要规避高成本的制度实施, 为适应性管理机制的分析奠定基础。 最终针对资源系统、资源单元、用户、管理系统和空间协调发展上提出适应性管理对策,该对策包括了宏观、中观和微观上的对应措施。
Other AbstractAfter specific research on the specific analysis, influencing factors and changingcharacteristics of grassland society-ecological system, the framework of institutionalchoice analysis in grassland management is formed, and finally the countermeasuresfor adaptive management are proposed for regional sustainable development. Thesocial-ecological system is a typical complex adaptive system. This paper takesspatial feature evaluation as an important variable into the general analysis frameworkof social-ecological system, and the resource system, resource unit, user andmanagement system of the whole grassland society-ecosystem. And the interactionbetween them and finally the static and dynamic assessment of the results of thegrassland society-ecological system with full elements, multiple spaces and long-termscales to deconstruct the actual problems and developmental features of the grassland,in order to realistically portray humans. The dynamic coupling between socialactivities and the natural ecological environment. The study found:According to the socio-ecological system analysis framework, the grasslandsocial-ecological system theory was specifically constructed. The spatialcharacteristics assessment is introduced into the grassland social-ecological systemevaluation index system to characterize the interaction process and results between thesubsystems in the grassland society-ecological system. The grasslandsociety-ecosystem theory provides a research paradigm, which is a comprehensivestudy of the current situation of grassland social ecology from the perspective ofcomplex systems theory, and discusses how to achieve coordinated development inthe final region. The social and ecological systems of the Kurustai grassland wereanalyzed from the four subsystems of resource system, resource unit, managementsystem and users. The problems of each subsystem were summarized as: grasslanddegradation, desertification and salinization in resources system, resources Water andsoil competition contradictions in the unit, management confusion in the managementsystem, and difficulties in improving the livelihood of users. Through the analysis ofgrassland space function identification, spatial coordination degree and spatialautocorrelation, it is found that the long-term interaction of the subsystems of thecommunity-ecological system of the Kurustai grassland is 90.77% of ecological space,8.54% of agricultural space and towns. The space ratio is 0.69%, and the spatialdevelopment is in a low-level coupling development stage. The coordination degree isat the middle level or below, and the characteristics of similar attributes areconcentrated.In the analysis of the socio-ecological impact analysis of the Kurustai grassland,it is found that the influence of human factors is greater than that of the naturalenvironment, and the policy change has the greatest impact, especially on theshort-term scale. The process of the Kurustai grassland system change is roughlydivided into three stages, namely, the collectivization stage (1949-1978), the open andprivatization stage (1978-2000), and the policy-oriented stage (2000-2015). In thecollectivization stage, the grassland society-ecosystem characteristics emphasize thatthe management department emphasizes the increase of livestock and food productionlevels, leading to major changes in the user's production behavior from animalhusbandry to agriculture. Property rights are changed from family ownership tocollective ownership, forming a new user group. . The most obvious feature of theopen and privatization phase is that external forages enter the grasslandsociety-ecosystem as resource units, decoupling the production of livestock from thequality of the natural grasslands. The policy-oriented stage is: before 2008, thegrassland stocking and mutton prices showed a synchronous trend, indicating thatmarket factors have a dominant influence on grassland stocking; however, after 2008,the government began to implement various policies, from which the grasslandstocking and price levels The relationship between them is no longer obvious, and thepolicy effect is gradually becoming prominent. Longitudinal comparative analysis ofthe dynamic changes of macroscopic conditions in the grassland society-ecosystem,the influence of natural factors in the transition from collectivization to openness andprivatization gradually decreased, and external forages were introduced as resourceunits, changing the interaction between livestock and local grassland conditions.Changes in property rights have also dramatically changed production methods andincentives. The privatization stage has played a leading role in policy, trade andmarket in the policy-oriented stage. The social-ecosystem change dynamics mainlycome from a large number of top-down policies and project implementation.Improving the ability to choose the system is an important means to realize thegrassland society-ecosystem suitability management. From the modern situation,expected cost, expected return and market environment, the paper analyzes the systemselection process and deconstructs the decision-making process of retaining orchanging the current rules in the grassland society-ecological system, mainly to avoidhigh-cost system implementation and adaptability. The analysis of the managementmechanism lays the foundation. Finally, adaptive management strategies are proposedfor resource system, resource unit, user, management system and space coordinationdevelopment. The countermeasures include macro, meso and micro measures.
Subject Area人文地理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/15319
Collection中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
研究系统
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈东丽. 草原社会-生态系统动态变化及其适应性管理对策研究—以库鲁斯台草原为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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