EGI OpenIR
雅丹形态参数特征及其变化研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Characteristics and Changes of Yardangs Morphological Parameters
宋昊泽
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor穆桂金
2019-06-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword雅丹 罗布泊 形态参数 特征描述 Yardang Lop Nur Morphological Parameters Characterization
Abstract雅丹作为一种典型的风蚀地貌,其形态的差异不仅造就了丰富多彩的自然景观,同时反映雅丹发育的不同阶段和所受外营力环境差异。 因此研究雅丹形态,描述形态参数特征, 可以揭示雅丹发育变化特征,同时对地貌学风蚀过程等基础理论研究具有重要意义。本文在前人的研究基础上,选择雅丹形态典型且多样的罗布泊地区作为研究区, 通过 UAV 和遥感影像分别开展雅丹形态信息的采集和提取工作,在此基础上完成了雅丹形态参数体系的构建。借助这一参数体系,通过典型形态雅丹的测量,尝试描述形态参数的基本特征,并在扩大雅丹测量范围后,讨论了由不同类型雅丹形态表现所导致的形态参数变化。本文取得的主要进展与结论如下:(1) 构建了雅丹形态参数体系利用采集得到雅丹形态信息并结合实地的简单测量,首先对雅丹各特征部位及相关名词进行了命名,共得到 23 个雅丹特征部位名词。其次根据以上雅丹特征部位名词,从规模、 形态、 空间分布等形态特征描述角度,阐释了较为科学、完备的雅丹形态参数定义,共定义了 105 个雅丹形态参数,并以这些参数定义为基础,明确了形态参数的测量规范。开展实验性测量检验了参数定义的完整性和测量规范的可行简便性,并对少量参数进行了讨论和补充。在形态参数定义和测量规范成型后,从参数的适用性和特征性两个方面,对各形态参数进行评价工作,从 105 个参数中选取了 29 个参数作为代表性参数,适应大范围雅丹测量工作,最终完成了多层次的雅丹形态参数体系构建。(2) 归纳了形态参数的基本特征并讨论了其各类变化利用雅丹形态参数体系,首先选取典型形态雅丹,然后对所有形态雅丹的形态参数特征开展了描述。结果显示:雅丹长宽比变化并不是线性的(如保持 4 : 1),而是呈现伴随雅丹长度和宽度的增大,逐步变小的变化趋势,具体表现为随着雅丹长度的逐步增大,宽度的增大趋势会显著放缓;雅丹长宽比与其规模(高度)间存在相互关系, 随着雅丹规模的增大,雅丹长度的变化要快于宽度的变化,长度的增加是雅丹长宽比变小的主要原因;邻雅丹数出现 3和 6两个集中分布区间,可能分别指示雅丹间的风蚀沟或风蚀洼地并未展开的雅丹初成聚集阶段以及雅丹间的风蚀沟或风蚀洼地得到发育的雅丹成熟疏离阶段;同时当雅丹规模不断变大时,雅丹之间距离也会随之不断拉大,最终造成雅丹的空间分布由密集转为稀疏,拥挤程度逐步下降。在完成参数数值变化的讨论后,结合不同的雅丹分布区域探讨了形态参数变化的区域差异,结果反映参数可以较好地描述区域雅丹的形态特征,其中楼兰中南部区域的雅丹形态与典型形态雅丹最为相似,从形态参数的变化特征可以推测楼兰南部雅丹处于初成时期,而楼兰中部和北部雅丹分别处于风蚀成熟和纵深发展时期,白龙堆雅丹则可能处于单一风力侵蚀作用下的雅丹发育稳定时期。(3) 描述了雅丹共基座现象结合测量中遇到的风蚀垄岗形态,定义数个雅丹分布在同一个基座体上的形态组合为为雅丹共基座现象。经过形态分析,认识到:雅丹共基座现象具有广泛性,不同高度的共基座雅丹是各自独立风蚀过程的结果,并非指示一个风蚀发展演变序列; 共基座雅丹与典型形态雅丹具有相似性, 是由单一风向风蚀残丘构成的复合型雅丹地貌, 区别并分别测量基座体和共基座雅丹, 可以得到所获得更具有丰富内涵和意义的雅丹形态测量数据;雅丹共基座现象是风蚀深切多层厚层抗风蚀较强地层的结果, 体现了风蚀的纵深发展,直接导致雅丹空间格局已经复杂化,从而影响雅丹形态的变化。
Other AbstractAs a typical wind erosion landform, Yardang's morphological differences notonly create a colorful natural landscape, but also reflect the different stages ofYardang's development and the external environment. Therefore, studying the shapeof Yardang and describing the characteristics of morphological parameters can revealthe developmental characteristics of Yardang, and it is of great significance to thebasic theoretical research such as geomorphological wind erosion process. Based onthe previous studies, this paper selects the typical and diverse Lop Nur area as thestudy area. The UAV and remote sensing images are used to collect and extract theYardang morphological information. On this basis, the Yardang morphologicalparameters are completed. The construction of the system. With this parameter system,the basic characteristics of the morphological parameters were attempted through themeasurement of the typical shape of Yardang, and after the Yardang measurementrange was expanded, the morphological parameter changes caused by the differenttypes of Yardang morphological expression were discussed.The main progress andconclusions of this paper are as follows:Firstly, the Yardang morphological parameter system was constructed. TheYardang morphological information was collected and combined with the simplemeasurement in the field. Firstly, the characteristic parts and related nouns of Yardangwere named, and 23 Yardang characteristic parts nouns were obtained. Secondly,according to the above-mentioned Yardang characteristic part nouns, the definitions ofthe more scientific and complete Yardang morphological parameters are explainedfrom the perspectives of morphological characteristics such as scale, shape and spatialdistribution. A total of 105 Yardang morphological parameters are defined and definedby these parameters. Based on the basis, the measurement specifications of themorphological parameters are clarified. Experimental measurements were carried outto test the completeness of the parameter definition and the feasibility and simplicity of the measurement specifications, and to discuss and supplement a few parameters.After the morphological parameter definition and measurement specification arecomplete, the evaluation of each morphological parameter is carried out from the twoaspects of the applicability and characteristic of the parameters. From the 105parameters, 29 parameters are selected as representative parameters to adapt to thelarge-scale Yardang. The measurement work finally completed the construction of amulti-level Yardang morphological parameter system.Secondly, The basic characteristics of morphological parameters are summarizedand their various changes are discussed. By using the Yardang morphologicalparameter system, the typical form of Yardang was first selected, and then themorphological parameters of all forms of Yardang were described. The results showthat the change in the aspect ratio of Yardang is not linear(such as maintaining 4:1) ,but it is accompanied by an increase in the length and width of Yardang, whichgradually becomes smaller, which is manifested by the length of Yardang. Graduallyincreasing, the trend of width increase will be significantly slowed down; there is arelationship between the length-to-width ratio of Yardang and its size(height) . As thesize of Yardang increases, the length of Yardang changes faster than the width. Theincrease in length is the main reason for the decrease of the aspect ratio of Yardang;the adjacent Yardang number has two concentrated distribution intervals of 3 and 6,which may indicate the wind erosion trench or the wind erosion depression in Yardang.At the stage and the wind erosion ditch or wind erosion in the Yardang area, thedeveloped Yardang mature alienation stage; At the same time, when the size ofYardang continues to increase, the distance between Yardang will continue to increase,eventually resulting in the spatial distribution of Yardang. From dense to sparse, thedegree of congestion has gradually declined.After the discussion of the change of parameter values is completed, the regionaldifferences of morphological parameters are discussed in combination with differentyardang distribution areas. The results reflect the parameters that can better describethe morphological characteristics of the regional yardangs, and the Yardang form in the central and southern part of Loulan is the most similar with the typical form ofYardang. From the variation of morphological parameters, it can be inferred thatYardang in the south of Loulan is in the early stage, while the central and northernYardang of Loulan are in the period of wind erosion ripening and deep development,respectively. Bailongdui Yardang may be in the stable development period of Yardangunder the action of single wind erosion.Lastly, studying the phenomenon of Yardang common pedestal. Combined withthe wind erosion ridge morphology encountered in the measurement, themorphological combination of several Yardang distributions on the same pedestalbody is defined as the Yardang common pedestal phenomenon. After morphologicalanalysis, it is recognized that the Yardang common pedestal phenomenon is extensive,and the common pedestal Yardang of different heights is the result of independentwind erosion process, which does not indicate a sequence of wind erosion evolution;The common pedestal Yardang and the typical morphological Yardang has similarity.It is a complex Yardang land morphological composed of a single windward winderosion mound. The difference between the pedestal body and the common pedestalYardang is obtained, and the Yardang morphological measurement data with richconnotation and meaning can be obtained. The Yardang common pedestalphenomenon is the result of deep erosion into deep multi-layer thick layer anti-winderosion strong stratum, which reflects the deep development of wind erosion, andwhich directly leads to the complicated spatial pattern of Yardang, thus affecting thechange of Yardang morphological pattern.
Subject Area自然地理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/15354
Collection中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
研究系统
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
宋昊泽. 雅丹形态参数特征及其变化研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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