EGI OpenIR
塔里木河干流胡杨林蒸散发水文分割及时空变化特征
Alternative TitleHydrological segmentation and temporal and spatial variation characteristics of evapotranspiration of Populus euphratica forest in the main stream of Tarim River basin
张瑞文
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor赵成义
2019-06-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline工程硕士
Keyword稳定同位素技术 胡杨林蒸散发耗水 HYDRUS 模型 GLEAM 遥感数据 Evapotranspiration of populus euphratica Isotope technique HYDRUS-1D GLEAM remote sensing model
Abstract蒸散发作为下垫面水分耗散的途径之一, 是流域水循环研究的重点,特别是在极端干旱区, 蒸散发作为水分耗散的主要过程, 在联系地下水与地表水之间交换,维持植被生长等方面起到重要的作用。 如何实现对蒸散发过程水分来源的定量识别与分割一直是陆面水文过程研究的难点和挑战。因分馏作用在蒸发过程与蒸腾过程之间的不同作用造成两者水分稳定同位素组成存在差异,应用稳定同位素技术对不同水文循环过程中水分运动和变化规律进行追踪和模拟成为可能。作为混合水源库的土壤水与地下水、地表径流通过入渗、蒸散发作用构成完整的流域水文循环过程。研究陆地表层蒸散发的时空变化特征,定量区分流域蒸散发的组成, 揭示陆面蒸散发过程的水分来源和蒸散发过程与下垫面之间的水力联系,可为大尺度区域生态水文过程模拟的参数化与数据融合提供重要依据。本研究基于大型 Lysimeter 与流域监测平台, 通过陆地表层蒸散发的地面观测与稳定同位素示踪试验,研究胡杨蒸腾耗水的多源性水源分割, 分析胡杨林蒸散发的时空变化规律,区分区域蒸腾/蒸散的组成,阐明胡杨蒸腾过程与土壤水之间的水力联系与相互作用机理,为塔河实现水资源优化配置和生态建设提供依据。 主要结论如下:(1)降水、植物水和土壤水等不同水源稳定同位素组成存在较大差异。塔里木河上游地区大气降水线 LMWL: D=6.93δ18O+4.35, 截距和斜率均低于全球大气降水线,这表明在塔河流域降水过程中存在明显的二次分馏现象。受气候影响不同季节降水稳定同位素组成差异明显;土壤水稳定同位素组成随土壤深度增加而逐渐贫化;深层土壤水稳定同位素组成基本不受降水影响。不同水分条件下(匮缺水分条件、适宜水分条件、充足水分条件和自然状态)胡杨林日平均蒸散发量分别为 5.29 mm/d、 4.81 mm/d、 4.06 mm/d 和 3.28 mm/d,日蒸散发量变化差异明显。胡杨林蒸发量和蒸腾量随水分条件由干转湿均呈现增加变化,其中植被蒸腾增加相比土壤蒸发更为显著。(2)胡杨林蒸散耗水受土壤干湿条件影响而变化。不同水分条件下HYDRUS 模型对胡杨林水分运移过程具有良好的模拟效果。胡杨林在不同水分条件下土壤含水量变化差异明显。灌溉条件下土壤各层含水量呈现增加变化,其中表层含水量波动最为明显。随着水分条件逐渐湿润,土壤水分入渗深度呈增加趋势同时胡杨净光合速率和蒸腾速率也出现上升变化。胡杨林蒸发量和蒸腾量随灌溉量增加而逐渐增加,其中植被蒸腾在蒸散发中所占比例逐渐升高,植被蒸腾耗水是蒸散发水分耗散的主要原因。水分条件的改变直接导致胡杨林贮水量发生变化随着水分条件由干变湿,土壤贮水量逐渐增加。在自然状态下由于受到强烈的蒸散发作用,胡杨林土壤水分呈现逐渐匮缺的变化。(3)塔里木河干流区蒸散发量空间分布差异明显。 1980 年至 2017 年间塔河干流区域蒸散发量和蒸腾量变化均呈增加趋势。多年平均蒸散发量和蒸腾量分别为 101.5 mm 和 50.9 mm,多年蒸散发量与蒸腾量的变率分别为 0.94 mm/a 和0.43 mm/a。塔河干流区域蒸散发量与蒸腾量从上游至下游呈逐渐降低的趋势。不同季节蒸散发量和蒸腾量变化差异较大,其中夏季蒸散发量与蒸腾量达到最大,而冬季则为最低。整个塔河干流区蒸散发量变率与蒸腾量变率均为正值,但在空间分布上存在明显差异。年内蒸散发量与蒸腾量变率的空间分布存在明显的季节变化特征。整个塔河干流流域多年蒸腾占比为 15.3%,春、夏、秋和冬四季塔河干流蒸腾占比分别为 16.1%、 17.4%、 14.3%和 11.2%,蒸腾占比空间分布主要受到气候条件和下垫面植被条件的影响。塔河干流各测站年径流量在过去 50 年间呈下降变化。塔河干流上游耗水量呈增加变化,中游耗水量呈减少趋势。
Other AbstractEvapotranspiration, as the main process of water dissipation on the underlyingsurface, is the focus of the water cycle research in the basin. How to realize thequantitative identification and segmentation of water sources in the evapotranspirationprocess has always been the difficulty and challenge in the study of land surfacehydrological processes. Due to the different effects of fractionation betweenevaporation and transpiration, there are differences in the composition of water stableisotope between the two processes. Therefore, it is possible to track and simulate thewater movement and change rules in different hydrological cycles by using stableisotope technology. As a mixed water source reservoir, soil water and groundwater,surface runoff constitute a complete hydrological cycle process through infiltrationand evapotranspiration. The spatial-temporal variation characteristics of terrestrialsurface evapotranspiration were studied to quantitatively distinguish the compositionof river basin evapotranspiration and reveal the water source of the process ofterrestrial surface evapotranspiration and the hydraulic relationship between theprocess and underlying surface, which can provide an important basis for theparameterization and data fusion of large-scale regional eco-hydrological processsimulation.This study based on the large Lysimeter and basin monitoring platform, throughthe ground of the land surface evaporation observation and stable isotope tracer test,study Populus euphratica transpiration water consumption of multi-source waterdivision, analysis the temporal and spatial variation in Populus euphraticaevapotranspiration, distinguish between regional transpiration/evapotranspiration,clarify the connection among Populus euphratica transpiration and soil water andinteraction mechanism of optimal allocation of water resources in Tarim riverimplementation and provides the basis for ecological construction. The mainconclusions are as follows:(1) The stable isotope composition of different water sources, such asprecipitation, plant water and soil water, is significantly different. The intercept andslope of the atmospheric precipitation line LMWL: D=6.93 18O+4.35 in the upperreaches of Tarim river are lower than the global atmospheric precipitation line, whichindicates that there is an obvious secondary fractionation phenomenon in theprecipitation process in the tahe river basin. Under the influence of climate, the stableisotopic composition of precipitation in different seasons is obviously different. Thestable isotope composition of soil water was gradually depleted with the increase ofsoil depth, and stable isotope composition of deep soil water is not affected byprecipitation. The average daily evapotranspiration of Populus euphratica forest was5.29mm/d, 4.81mm/d, 4.06mm/d and 3.28mm/d under different water conditions(chamber water condition, suitable water condition, sufficient water condition andnatural condition), and the variation of daily evapotranspiration was obviouslydifferent. Both evaporation and transpiration of Populus euphratica forest wereincreased from dry to wet with the change of water conditions, and the increase ofvegetation transpiration was more significant than that of soil evaporation.The mainprocess of evapotranspiration as land surface water dissipation is the key.(2) Evapotranspiration water of Populus euphratica forest changes under theinfluence of dry and wet soil conditions. Under different water conditions, theHYDRUS model can well simulate the water transport process of Populus euphraticaforest. The soil water content of Populus euphratica forest was different underdifferent water conditions. The surface water content fluctuates most obviously underirrigation condition. With the gradual wetting of water conditions, soil waterinfiltration depth increased and the net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate ofPopulus euphratica also increased. Evapotranspiration and transpiration of Populuseuphratica forest increased with the increase of irrigation, and the proportion ofvegetation transpiration in evapotranspiration increased gradually, and waterconsumption by vegetation transpiration was the main reason for evapotranspiration.The change of water condition directly leads to the change of water storage inPopulus euphratica forest. Due to the strong evapotranspiration in the natural state,soil moisture in Euphrates poplar forest is gradually lacking.(3) The spatial distribution of evapotranspiration in the main stream area ofTarim river is significantly different. From 1980 to 2017, evapotranspiration andtranspiration in the Tarim river trunk stream both showed an increasing trend. Themulti-year average evapotranspiration and transpiration were 101.5mm and 50.9mm,respectively, and the rate of change of multi-year evapotranspiration and transpirationwere 0.94mm/a and 0.43mm/a, respectively. The evapotranspiration and transpirationin the Tarim river trunk stream decreased gradually from upstream to downstream.Evapotranspiration and transpiration vary greatly in different seasons, in whichsummer evapotranspiration and transpiration reach the maximum, while winterevapotranspiration is the minimum.The evapotranspiration rate and transpiration rate are both positive in the wholeTarim main stream, but there are significant differences in spatial distribution. Thespatial distribution of annual evapotranspiration and evapotranspiration variability hasobvious seasonal variation characteristics. Transpiration accounts for 15.3% of totalevapotranspiration in the Tarim river trunk stream, and 16.1%, 17.4%, 14.3% and 11.2%in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. The spatial distribution oftranspiration is mainly affected by climatic conditions and underlying vegetationconditions. The annual runoff of each station of Tarim river main stream hasdecreased in the past 50 years. The water consumption of the upper reaches of theTarim main stream increases and changes, while that of the middle reaches decreases.
Subject Area环境工程
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/15357
Collection中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
研究系统
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张瑞文. 塔里木河干流胡杨林蒸散发水文分割及时空变化特征[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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