EGI OpenIR
世界自然遗产潜力区评估研究——以中国西北干旱区为例
Alternative TitleResearch on Assessment of Potential World Natural Heritage ——A Case Study in Arid Region of Northwest China
叶辉
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor杨兆萍
2019-20-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学博士
Keyword自然遗产 潜力区 价值评估 西北干旱区 world natural heritage potential area value assessment northwest arid region of China
Abstract本研究通过梳理世界自然遗产的相关研究以及属性特征, 将世界自然遗产价值评估方法体系引入到我国自然遗产潜力区评估, 提出适应我国的世界自然遗产潜力区评估方法和筛选路径。 以中国西北干旱区为例, 识别并评估世界自然遗产潜力区, 实现我国自然遗产潜力区评估方法的创新。 中国西北干旱区东起贺兰山以西, 西到国境线, 中纬度西风带作用的温带和暖温带气候带。 西北干旱区地域广阔, 自然资源丰富, 自然环境与我国其它地区截然不同, 以极端干旱、 高山与盆地相间, 植被、 土壤类型丰富, 生物多样性极其丰富, 但已列入《世界遗产名录》 的自然遗产仅有 2 处。 本文以西北干旱区为例, 识别世界自然遗产潜力区并评估遗产价值及优先级。 主要内容和结论如下:(1) 建立世界自然遗产潜力区价值评价方法: 运用文献资料分析方法, 综合分析世界生物地理省区划、 世界自然基金会(WWF) G200 生态区、 保护国际(CI) 认定的 34 个生物多样性热点区、 IUCN 自然遗产战略报告等, 参照其生物生态区划及分类体系, 从美学价值、 地学价值、 生物生态价值三方面分析世界自然遗产价值载体;建立世界自然遗产潜力区价值评价方法, 包括价值标准评价、价值完整性评价、 价值保护管理评价。(2) 提取世界自然遗产潜力区评估的影响因素: 通过从空间分布、 列入标准、 遗产类别三方面分析全球世界自然遗产和中国世界自然遗产现状, 分析世界自然遗产的低代表地貌类型和低代表列入标准组合, 将其作为世界自然潜力区评估的影响因素。 低代表地貌类型包括陨石冲击、 水体景观、 构造地貌、 冰川地貌、海岸地貌; 低代表区域包括西北地区、 长城以北地区和南岭以南地区; 低代表列入标准组合包括标准 vii&viii&ix、标准 vii&viii&x、 标准 viii&ix&x、 标准 viii&ix、标准 viii&x。 通过分析 IUCN 世界自然遗产 8 个系列主题报告, 梳理被 IUCN 列为潜在世界自然遗产的中国遗产地, 作为自然遗产潜力区评估的影响因素。(3) 建立中国世界自然遗产潜力区识别指标体系: 运用德尔菲法征询专家小组成员的预测意见, 经过两轮征询, 使专家小组的预测意见趋于集中, 建立中国世界自然遗产潜力区识别指标体系, 从生态重要性、 生态完整性、 生物多样性、生态服务功能、 原真性等五方面确定了 23 个指标因子。(4) 以中国西北干旱区作为评价单元, 根据中国世界自然遗产潜力区识别指标体系, 识别出 6 个自然遗产潜力区, 分别是塔克拉玛干沙漠、 巴丹吉林沙漠、新疆卡拉麦里山、 新疆阿尔金山、 新疆阿尔泰山、 喀喇昆仑-帕米尔群峰; 根据干旱区显著特点以及特殊地理位置, 将秦岭和黄土地貌补充作为世界自然遗产潜力区; 共计 8 个世界自然遗产潜力区。(5) 通过对 8 处自然遗产潜力区的遗产价值分析, 提出各潜力区所包括的具体片区及拟列入世界自然遗产的标准。新疆阿尔泰山遗产潜力区包括喀纳斯国家级自然保护区、 新疆阿尔泰山两河源自然保护区, 拟列入标准为标准 vii、 标准 ix; 塔克拉玛干沙漠遗产潜力区包括轮台胡杨林、 罗布湖沙漠, 拟列入标准为标准 vii、 标准 viii、 标准 ix; 喀喇昆仑-帕米尔群峰遗产潜力区包括塔什库尔干自然保护区、 帕米尔高原湿地自然保护区, 拟列入标准为标准 vii、 标准 viii、 标准 x; 新疆阿尔金山遗产潜力区包括新疆阿尔金山国家级自然保护区, 拟列入标准为标准 vii、 标准 x; 巴丹吉林沙漠遗产潜力区包括巴丹吉林沙漠风景名胜区,拟列入标准为标准 vii、 标准 viii; 新疆卡拉麦里山遗产潜力区包括新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类野生动物自然保护区, 拟列入标准为标准 vii、 标准 x; 秦岭遗产潜力区包括秦岭自然保护区群, 包括小秦岭、 伏牛山、 宝天曼和太白山 4 个森林生态类型国家级自然保护区, 牛背梁、 周至、 汉中朱鹮、 长青、 桑园、 佛坪、 天华山和小陇山 8 个野生动物类型国家级自然保护区, 1 个黄河湿地国家级自然保护区,以及其他省级自然保护区, 拟列入标准为标准 vii、 标准 ix、 标准 x; 黄土地貌遗产潜力区包括洛川黄土国家地质公园, 拟列入标准为标准 vii, 标准 viii。(6) 根据世界自然遗产 4 项评估标准, 以美学价值、 地学价值、 生物生态学价值的要素作为评价指标, 评价世界自然遗产潜力区优先级。 分别请 10 位国内外专家给每个能代表突出普遍价值的各个指标进行打分, 并对各项求和, 根据平均分分值高低进行潜力区排序。 本研究筛选的 8 个自然遗产潜力区中, 根据总分高低分布情况, 将得分 50 分以上(含 50 分) 的潜力区列为优先潜力区: 塔克拉玛干沙漠、 喀喇昆仑-帕米尔群峰、 阿尔泰山、 巴丹吉林沙漠; 49 分(含 49分) 以下的潜力区列为次优先潜力区: 黄土地貌、 秦岭、 新疆阿尔金山、 新疆卡拉麦里山。(7) 提出西北干旱区世界自然遗产申报建议。 建议申报自然遗产时优先考虑低代表地貌类型、 低代表区域、 低代表列入标准组合的自然遗产潜力区; 建议独立申报自然遗产的潜力区有: 塔克拉玛干沙漠、 喀喇昆仑-帕米尔群峰、 阿尔泰山、 巴丹吉林沙漠、 黄土地貌、 秦岭、 新疆卡拉麦里山; 建议拓展申报自然遗产的潜力区是新疆阿尔金山, 加入青海可可西里世界自然遗产。
Other AbstractThis study introduced the value assessment method system of the world naturalheritage into the potential world natural heritage assessment of China by sorting outthe relevant researches and attribute characteristics of the world natural heritage, andproposed the assessment system and selection path suitable for China's potential areaassessment of the world natural heritage. Taking the arid region of northwest China asan example, this paper identified and evaluated the potential areas of the world naturalheritage, and realizes the innovation of the assessment method of the potential areasof China's natural heritage. The arid region of northwest China starts from the west ofHelan mountain in the east to the border of the country in the west. It is located in thecenter of Eurasia continent, 35 ° ~ 50 ° north latitude, continuous more than 2500 km,across 30 degrees of longitude, the total area of about 22% of the country's land area.The arid region of Northwest China has a vast territory and rich natural resources. Itsnatural environment is completely different from that of other regions in China. It ischaracterized by extreme drought, interwoven mountains and basins, rich vegetationand soil types, and extremely rich biodiversity. However, there are only two naturalsites on the World Heritage List. This paper takes northwest arid region of China as anexample to identify potential areas of world natural heritage and evaluate the valueand priority of the potential areas.The main contents and conclusions are as follows:(1) Based on the comprehensive analysis of the bio-geographic provincesdivision, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Global 200 biome, 34 biodiversityhot-spots of Conservation International (CI) , IUCN natural heritage strategy reports,etc., this paper established value evaluation criterion of the potential world naturalheritage area, including the value standard evaluation, value integrity evaluation,protection and management evaluation.(2) By analyzing the spatial distribution, inclusion criterion and heritagecategory of global world natural heritages and world natural heritages in Chinarespectively, the paper summarized the low-representative landform types,low-representative regions and low-representative combinations evaluation criteria ofworld natural heritage, used as a reference index for potential area assessment. The low representative landform types include meteorite impact, water landscape, tectoniclandform, glacial landform and coastal landform. The low representative area includesthe northwest area, the area north of the Great Wall and the area south of Nanling. Thelow representation included in the criteria portfolio includes criteria vii&viii&ix,criteria vii&viii&x, criteria viii&ix&x, criteria viii&ix, criteria viii&x. By analyzingthe IUCN world natural heritage series thematic reports, the Chinese heritage siteslisted as potential world natural heritage sites by the IUCN are summarized as areference for the assessment of natural heritage potential areas.(3) The Delphi method was used to establish an index system for the assessmentof potential areas of world natural heritage in China, and 23 index factors weredetermined from five aspects: ecological importance, ecological integrity, biodiversity,ecological service function and authenticity.(4) Taking the northwest arid region of China as the evaluation unit, six naturalheritage potential areas were calculated through the evaluation index of the worldnatural heritage potential areas. They are Taklimakan Desert, Badanjilin Desert,Xinjiang Karamali Mountain, Xinjiang Altun Mountain, Xinjiang Altai Mountain,Xinjiang Karakoram-Pamir Peaks. The Qinling mountains and the Loess landformwere added as potential world natural heritage sites according to the obviouscharacteristics and special geographical location of the arid areas. A total of 8potential world natural heritage sites were identified.(5) Through the analysis of the heritage value of 8 potential natural heritageareas, the specific areas included in the potential natural heritage areas and the criteriato be included in the world natural heritage are proposed. The potential heritage areasof Xinjiang Altai include Kanas National Nature Reserve and Xinjiang Altai BiheyuanNature Reserve, which are to be listed as criteria vii and criteria ix. The potentialheritage areas of Taklimakan desert include Luntai Euphrates Poplar Forest and LubeLake Desert, which are proposed to be included in criteria vii, criteria viii and criteriaix. The potential areas of Karakoram-Pamir peaks include Tashkurgan Nature Reserveand Pamir Plateau Wetland Nature Reserve, which are to be included in criteria vii,criteria viii and criteria x. The potential areas of Xinjiang Altun Mountain includeXinjiang Altun National Nature Reserve, which is to be listed as criteria vii andcriteria x. The potential areas of Badanjilin Desert include the Badanjilin DesertScenic and Historic Interest Area, which is proposed to be included in criteria vii andcriteria viii. The potential heritage areas of Xinjiang Karamaili Mountain includes Xinjiang Karamaili Kountain Ungulate Wildlife Nature Reserve, which is to beincluded as criteria vii and criteria x. The potential heritage areas of the Qinlingmountains include: four forest ecological national nature reserves, such as theXiaoqinling, Funiu mountain, Baotianman and Taibai Mountain National NatureReserve; eight wildlife national nature reserves, such as Niubeiliang, Zhouzhi,Hanzhong crested ibis, Changqing, Mulberry field, Foping, Tianhuashan andXiaolongshan; Yellow River Wetland National Nature Reserve, and other provincialnature reserves, which are to be included in criteria vii, and criteria ix, criteria x; Thepotential areas of Loess landform heritage include Luochuan Loess National Geopark,which is to be included in criteria vii and criteria viii.(6) According to the four evaluation criteria of world natural heritage, thepriority of potential world natural heritage areas was evaluated by taking the factors ofaesthetic value, geological value and biological ecological value as evaluation indexes.Ten domestic and foreign experts were asked to score each indicator that can representoutstanding universal value, and sum each indicator according to the average scorehigh or low potential area ranking. Among the 8 natural heritage potential areasselected in this study, according to the distribution of the total score, the potentialareas with a score of more than 50 points (including 50 points) were listed as thepriority potential areas: Taklimakan Desert, Xinjiang Karakoram-Pamir Peaks,Xinjiang Altai Mountain, Badanjilin Desert; Potential areas with 49 points (including49 points) were listed as secondary priority potential areas: the Loess landform, theQinling mountains, Xinjiang Altun Mountain , and Xinjiang Karamali Mountain.(7) The declaration proposal of world natural heritage in northwest arid area wasput forward. It is suggested that, when applying for natural heritage, priority should begiven to the natural heritage potential areas with low representative landform types,low representative areas and low representative criteria combinations. It is suggestedthat the potential areas for independent declaration of natural heritage include:Taklimakan Desert, Xinjiang Karakoram-Pamir Peaks, Xinjiang Altai Mountain,Badanjilin Desert, Qinling mountains, Loess landform, and Xinjiang KaramaliMountain; Xinjiang Altun Mountain is proposed for extension of declaration, to beadded to the Hoh Xil World Heritage Site in Qinghai.
Subject Area人文地理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/15369
Collection中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
研究系统
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
叶辉. 世界自然遗产潜力区评估研究——以中国西北干旱区为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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