Alternative TitleStudy on the differences of policies and regulations on combating desertification in typical countries along “The Belt and Road”
Thesis Advisor雷加强
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学博士
Keyword“一带一路” 典型国家 荒漠化防治 政策法规 差异性 对比研究 “The Belt and Road” Typical country Combating Desertification Policies and Regulations - Differences Comparative Study
Abstract“一带一路”沿线 66 个国家(包括中国),超过 60 个国家正遭受着干旱、土地退化和荒漠化的危害,是世界上荒漠化问题最严重的区域之一。荒漠化既是生态环境问题,又是社会经济问题。目前荒漠化方面的研究主要集中在防沙治沙的技术层面,多数研究是从生态学、林业、农业、草业、水土保持等学科角度开展研究的,而从公共政策角度研究的比较缺乏,尤其是对荒漠化防治政策法规研究十分薄弱。本论文通过对“一带一路”沿线典型国家荒漠化防治政策法规差异性研究,阐明其荒漠化防治政策法规的特点、功能和功效,为出境机构、企事业单位更好地参与当地相关产业的合作与发展,推进“一带一路”建设,共建绿色“丝绸之路”,为国家倡议和科技创新合作提供有价值的决策参考。主要研究结果如下:(1)建立了“一带一路”沿线国家荒漠化防治政策法规信息储备基础数据库。依据沿线国家发展水平、政策法规内容和重视程度进行分类,为荒漠化防治政策法规跨学科对比研究分析提供数据支持与理论依据。(2)对比分析了“一带一路”沿线典型国家——中国、哈萨克斯坦、科威特、以色列和印度现有荒漠化防治政策法规体系,揭示了荒漠化防治政策法规体系之间的相似性和差异性,厘定了其重视程度、数量、优点和缺点。从荒漠化防治政策法规重视程度方面,中国和以色列都高度重视,哈萨克斯坦和印度次之,科威特最后;从荒漠化防治政策法规数量方面,中国数量最多,科威特最少;从环境政策法规制定四点原则方面,中国和以色列均呈现具体性、成本效益、时效性和多样性角度原则,印度需要提高其成本效益和时效性,而哈萨克斯坦和科威特则需要提高其具体性、成本效益和多样性。(3)分析了以国家尺度、流域尺度、工程尺度和旱地类型为代表的国家:中国、哈萨克斯坦、科威特和以色列荒漠化防治案例,利用层次分析法构建荒漠化防治政策法规体系评估标准,并根据具体案例,评价其政策法规实施效果。其主要结果为:由于以色列法制化时间最长,其执行效果最佳,中国防沙治沙模式为发展中国家提供了示范,哈萨克斯坦和科威特需要提高其执行效果。(4)提出了“一带一路”荒漠化防治政策法规国际合作建议。针对目前荒漠化国际合作中政策法规主要存在的三种问题:①政策和法规存在差异性;②法制和自主存在差异性;③国际标准和国内标准存在差异性。因此,提出三点建议:①重视生态环境习惯法;②加强推广荒漠化防治的“中国模式”;③分享荒漠化防治国际合作的“双轨制”。协调荒漠化防治政策法规国际合作的差异性,为荒漠化防治可持续发展提供科学理论与实践技术。
Other AbstractOf the 66 countries in “The Belt and Road”, more than 60 countries are sufferingfrom drought, land degradation and desertification, and this region has become one ofthe most severe desertification problems in the world. Desertification is not only aproblem of ecological environment, but also a social and economic issue. At present,the research on desertification mainly focuses on the technical level of sand control.Most studies are carried out from the perspectives of ecology, dryland, forestry,agriculture, animal husbandry, etc.. However, the research from the perspective ofpublic policy is relatively lacking, especially on the policies and regulations ofdesertification control. This paper studies the differences of policies and regulationson combating desertification in typical countries in “The Belt and Road” initiative,and clarifies the characteristics, functions and effects of the policies and regulationson combating desertification, and which provides a platform and opportunity for theagencies, enterprises and institutions to participate in the cooperation anddevelopment of local related industries, and promotes the construction of “The Beltand Road” build a green “Silk Road”. Therefore, provide valuable decision-makingreference for national initiatives, scientific and technological innovation cooperation.The main findings are as follows:(1) Established a basic database of information systems of policies andregulations on combating desertification along “The Belt and Road”, and according tothe national development level, the content of policies and regulations, the degree ofemphasis on legislation, it provides data support and theoretical basis forinterdisciplinary comparative research and analysis of desertification preventionpolicies and regulations.(2) Comparative analysis the existing desertification combating policies andregulations system in the typical countries along “The Belt and Road” —Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Israel, India and China. The similarities and differences betweenthe policies and regulations on combating desertification were summarized by caseanalysis and comparative study, and the importance, quantity, strengths andweaknesses of policies and regulation on combating desertification were analyzed.The main results are as follows: the perspective of the importance of legislation onpolicies and regulations on combating desertification like both Israel and China attach great importance to it, Kazakhstan and India followed, Kuwait last; the quantity ofpolicies and regulations on combating desertification show China has the largestnumber and the least number of Kuwait; and the view of characteristics ofenvironmental policies and regulations: specificity, cost effectiveness, timeliness anddiversity are both Israel and China include four principles, and India need to increaseits effectiveness and timeliness, Kazakhstan and Kuwait need to increase theirspecificity, cost effectiveness and diversity.(3) Analyzed the countries represented by national scale, watershed scale,engineering scale and dryland type are: desertification control cases in China,Kazakhstan, Kuwait and Israel. The analytic hierarchy process is used to construct theassessment criteria for desertification prevention policies and regulations, and theeffects of combating desertification policies and regulations were evaluated. Theresults indicate that: Israel has the longest legalization period and its implementationis the best, China’s combating desertification provides the model for developingcountries, and Kazakhstan and Kuwait need to improve their implementation.(4) Proposed the international cooperation proposal for “The Belt and Road”combating desertification policies and regulations. There are three main problems inthe current policies and regulations on international cooperation in desertification: Policies and regulations have differences;  Legal system and autonomy havedifferences;  International standards and domestic standards have differences.Therefore, three suggestions are proposed:  Emphasis on the local knowledge ofecological environment; The replication and popularization of the “Chinese mode”; Share the “double track system” for international cooperation on combatingdesertification. Coordinate the differences in regional and international cooperationon combating desertification and provide scientific theory and practical techniques forthe sustainable development of desertification control.
Subject Area自然地理学
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
尤源. “一带一路”沿线典型国家荒漠化防治政策法规差异性研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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