EGI OpenIR
喀什城市圈乡村聚落时空演变及重构路径
Alternative TitleSpatial-temporal evolution and reconstruction of rural settlements in Kashgar city circle
林金萍
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor雷军
2020-06-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword乡村聚落 格局演变 影响因素 重构路径 喀什城市圈 rural settlements evolution pattern influencing factors reconstruction path Kashgar city circle
Abstract乡村聚落研究是乡村地理学研究的核心内容,探讨地域乡村聚落空间特征与影响机理,具有重要的理论与现实意义。乡村聚落是城镇建成区以外农村居民聚居的地域,是农村居民与周边自然、经济、社会文化环境相互作用的现象与过程。绿洲是在荒漠背景下,具有稳定水源供给,适和植物生长,并且可供人类居住生活和进行工、 农业生产活动的区域。 绿洲乡村聚落是指分布于绿洲的乡村聚落。改革开放以来持续推进的工业化、城镇化加剧城乡发展差距,致使“三农”问题突出。对于生态脆弱的绿洲乡村聚落而言,其乡村发展问题更复杂,发展形势更严峻。为充分认识生态脆弱绿洲区的乡村聚落时空演化规律、驱动因素及乡村聚落重构路径,以期为地区乡村聚落选址、规划布局、聚落空间优化及土地集约利用提供参考。 本文以喀什城市圈为典型研究区,综合利用遥感解译数据、土地利用数据和统计数据,借助空间分析方法解析干旱区绿洲乡村聚落空间分布与演变特征。其次,从自然环境和社会经济两大方面选取高程、坡度、气候适宜性、 河流邻近性、道路邻近性、城镇邻近性、乡村人口和经济等 8 个要素探讨绿洲乡村聚落格局演变的主要影响因素,结合地理探测器技术分析各个影响因素的影响力大小与变化。最后,基于密度-规模-形态-因素四维特征,采用组合矩阵方法进行分类,将乡村聚落分为 6 种组合类型,针对性提出各类型乡村聚落重构路径。全文共分为七个章节,其中第四、五、六章为重点,具体而言:第一章是绪论部分,阐述本论文研究背景和研究意义,提出研究思路和研究方法。第二章是文献述评。在大量阅读文献的基础上,阐述乡村聚落含义与特征,梳理乡村聚落研究的理论基础, 评述乡村聚落研究过程、内容与特点,提出乡村振兴背景下的研究重点。第三章阐述了研究区概况,并从历史性、重要性、区域性、典型性 4 方面阐述研究区选择的依据。第四章分析了喀什城市圈绿洲乡村聚落时空演变特征,运用空间分析方法从乡村聚落分布、密度、规模和形态等方面对 1970、 2000 和 2015 年三个时期进行分析。第五章探讨了喀什城市圈绿洲乡村聚落时空演变的影响因素,从自然环境和社会经济两大要素选取高程、坡度、气候适宜性、河流邻近性、道路邻近性、城镇邻近性、乡村人口和经济等 8 大因子进行探讨。通过缓冲区分析和空间叠加分析方法研究各个因子对乡村聚落演变的作用方式,在此基础上,借助地理探测器识别各个因子影响力的大小和各时期主导影响因素变化。第六章基于乡村聚落密度-规模-形态-因素四维特征,采用组合矩阵方法进行分类,共得到 6 种组合类型,按照乡村聚落景观要素重建、结构重组和功能重塑的重构思路分别提出各种类型乡村聚落重构路径。第七章是结论部分,阐述本篇论文研究结论,讨论存在的不足。 得出研究结论如下:(1)演变特征。喀什城市圈乡村聚落演变虽然不像中国东部经济发达地区或城镇化快速推进地区那么强烈,但其仍具有明显的时空分布特征。经过 45 年的社会经济发展, 喀什城市圈乡村聚落仍保持以喀什-巴楚-莎车为密度高值中心的分布格局, 乡村聚落空间保持集聚分布模式。 乡村聚落总体用地规模和平均聚落规模均增加,表明在发展过程中乡村聚落空间呈扩张趋势,大规模聚落不断增加。 人类活动对乡村聚落发展的影响在增强, 乡村聚落形态经过无序变化后趋于规则发展。受制于特殊的自然环境本底,喀什城市圈绿洲乡村聚落呈现小规模小密度分布特征,未能形成大规模高密度团簇集聚格局。只有少数区位特别优越的发达县域或道路沿线乡村聚落,存在“吞并”式扩展模式及其引发的聚落数量减少发展趋势,大部分乡村聚落呈现数量小增长和原有小规模聚落扩展的发展规律。(2)影响因素。 喀什城市圈乡村聚落时空演变受高程、 坡度、气候、河流、道路、 城镇中心和社会经济等因素综合影响,但各因素的作用方式与作用程度不同。地形因素对规模影响小,对形态影响明显; 气候适宜性影响聚落数量与规模,但对聚落形态影响小; 河流对聚落数量、规模演变影响明显,对聚落形态演变影响小; 道路对乡村聚落规模与形态发展驱动作用明显,对聚落数量作用小; 城镇中心对乡村聚落数量、规模及形态均有重要影响; 人口增长导致粮食需求、住房需求增加,促使乡村聚落空间的不断扩展与扩散;城镇发展影响乡村聚落扩展速度与方向,从而影响其规模与形态,重塑城乡聚落格局; 经济发展为乡村聚落空间扩展提供了经济基础。同一影响因素在不同年份对乡村聚落空间分布的影响力存在不同。城镇、交通因素对乡村聚落演变起主导作用,虽然喀什城市圈的社会经济发展比较滞后, 但随着城镇、乡镇中心经济职能的日益增强,对资源、劳动力、农产品等的中心极化效应增强,乡村聚落空间也呈现出城镇中心指向。人口变化和经济增长发挥越来越重要的作用,随着经济社会的不断发展,人口和经济因素对聚落演变的影响力将日益增强。此外,虽然喀什城市圈绿洲乡村聚落空间分布变化表现出对自然环境的适应性,如缓坡指向、水系指向,但自然环境因素的影响力有所下降。此外,城镇化发展对乡村聚落演变方向与速度有重要影响,从而影响其规模形态演变特征。聚落历史文化、居民生活习惯、宗教信仰等对聚落形态与空间布局有重要作用。对口援疆、扶贫就业、土地整治和新农村建设等对新聚落的发育与发展有重要影响。(3)乡村聚落类型及重构路径。各类型乡村聚落具有各自的空间特征与主导影响因素,在日后发展中应按照景观要素重建、结构重组和功能重塑的乡村聚落重构思路,实现乡村经济快速发展、乡村人居环境宜居,乡村聚落健康可持续发展。对于自然环境恶劣,经济发展水平低,社会组织体系不健全,乡村发展自身动力不足的喀什城市圈乡村聚落而言,重构的重点在于通过空间组织、产业培育和社会保障来构建聚落体系。
Other AbstractRural settlement research is the core content of rural geography research. It hasimportant theoretical and practical significance to explore the spatial characteristicsand influence mechanism of regional rural settlement. Rural settlements are theareas where rural residents live outside the urban built-up areas. It is thephenomenon and process of interaction between rural residents and surroundingnatural, economic, social and cultural environment. Oasis is an area with stablewater supply under the background of desert, which is suitable for plant growth,human habitation or temporary residence, and for human's social and economicactivities such as agriculture, animal husbandry and industrial production. Oasisrural settlements refer to the rural settlements distributed in the oasis area, which arethe areas that human beings carry out agricultural and animal husbandry productionactivities in the arid area. The continuous industrialization and urbanization since theEconomic Reform and open up have exacerbated the gap between urban and ruraldevelopment, resulting in the prominent problems concerning agriculture, rural areasand farmers ("three rural"). For the ecological fragile oasis rural settlements, thedevelopment problems are more complex and the development situation is moresevere.In order to fully understand the spatial and temporal evolution rules, drivingfactors and reconstruction paths of rural settlements in the ecologically fragile oasisareas, the paper aims to provide references for rural settlements location selection,planning layout, settlement space optimization and land intensive use in the region.In this paper, taking Kashgar City Circle as a typical research area, the spatialdistribution and evolution characteristics of oasis rural settlements in arid area areanalyzed with the help of spatial analysis method by comprehensive using remotesensing interpretation data, land use data and statistical data. Then, from the twoaspects of natural environment and social economy, eight factors—elevation, slope,climate suitability, river proximity, road proximity, urban proximity, rural population and economy—were selected to explore the main influencing factors of the ruralsettlement evolution pattern in oasis, the influence degree and change of eachinfluencing factor were analyzed by means of the geographic detector technique.Finally, based on the four-dimensional characteristics of density-scale-shape-factor,classified rural settlements into six types by using the combination matrix method,and proposed the reconstruction path of each type.The paper is divided into seven chapters, of which the fourth, fifth and sixthchapters are the focus, specifically:The first chapter is the introduction part, which explains the researchbackground and research significance of this thesis, and puts forward the researchideas and methods.The second chapter is literature review. Based on a large number of literature,this paper expounds the meaning and characteristics of rural settlements,summarizes the theoretical basis, reviews the process, content and characteristics ofrural settlements research, and puts forward the research focus in the context ofRural Revitalization.The third chapter describes the general situation of the study area, and explainsthe reasons for choosing this research area from four aspects: historical, important,regional and typical.The fourth chapter analyzes the spatial and temporal evolution characteristicsof oasis rural settlements in Kashgar City Circle, and analyzes the three periods of1970, 2000 and 2015 from the distribution, density, scale and shape of ruralsettlements by using the spatial analysis method.The fifth chapter discusses the influencing factors of spatial-temporal evolutionin Kashgar City Circle oasis rural settlements, selecting eight factors from naturalenvironment and social economy, including elevation, slope, climate suitability, riverproximity, road proximity, urban proximity, rural population and economy. Throughbuffer analysis and spatial overlay analysis, this paper studies the effects of each factor on rural settlement evolution. On this basis, the influence degree of eachfactor and the change of dominant factors in each period are identified with the helpof geographic detector.The sixth chapter, obtained six rural settlement types according to thefour-dimensional characteristics of rural settlement density-scale-shape-factors byusing the combination matrix method. Then, proposed the reconstruction paths ofvarious rural settlement types respectively according to the reconstruction ideas ofrural settlement landscape elements reconstruction, structural restructuring andfunctional remodeling.The seventh chapter is the conclusion part, which elaborates the researchconclusion of this paper and discusses the existing shortcomings. The conclusionsare as follows:(1) Evolutionary characteristics. Although the evolution of rural settlements inthe Kashgar city circle is not as strong as that in the economically developed regionsor the rapidly urbanized regions in eastern China, it still has obvious spatial andtemporal distribution characteristics.After 45 years of socio-economic development, the rural settlements inKashgar city circle still maintain the distribution pattern withKashgar-Bachu-Shache as the high-density center, and the rural settlements spacemaintain the agglomeration distribution pattern. The overall land use scale andaverage scale of rural settlements have increased, indicating that during thedevelopment process, the rural settlement showed an expansion trend in thedevelopment process, and the large-scale settlements kept increasing. The impact ofhuman activities on the development of rural settlements is increasing, and the ruralsettlements pattern tends to develop regularly after disorderly changes.Subject to the special natural environment background, the oasis ruralsettlements in Kashgar city circle showed small-scale and small-density distributioncharacteristics, and failed to form a large-scale and high-density cluster aggregation pattern. There are only a few developed counties or rural settlements along the roadsthat are particularly superior in location. Exits a "merger" expansion model andtrend of rural settlement reduction. Most rural settlements show a small number ofgrowth and the original small-scale settlement expansion.(2) Influencing factors. The spatial and temporal evolution of rural settlementsin Kashgar city circle is comprehensively influenced by factors such as elevation,slope, climate, rivers, roads, town centers and socio-economic factors, but theinfluence mode and degree of each factor are different. Topographic factors havelittle impact on scale but obvious on morphology. Climate suitability affectssettlement quantity and scale but little on settlement morphology. Rivers haveobvious influence on settlement quantity and scale evolution, but little on settlementmorphology evolution. Roads play a significant role in driving the development ofthe rural settlements size and form, but a small role in settlement quantity. Urbancenters have an important impact on both number, scale and shape of ruralsettlements. Population growth leads to an increase in food demand and housingdemand, prompting the continuous expansion and diffusion of rural settlementspaces. The development of cities and towns affects the rural settlements expansionspeed and direction, Affect the expansion speed and direction of rural settlements,thereby the scale and shape, and reshaping the pattern of urban and rural settlements.Economic development provides an economic foundation for the expansion for therural settlement spatial expansion.The same influence factors has different influence on the spatial distribution ofrural settlements in different years. Town and transportation factors play a leadingrole in the evolution of rural settlements. Although the socio-economic developmentof the Kashgar City Circle is lagging behind, the rural settlement space also showsthe direction of the town center with the increasing economic functions of urban andtown center centers, with the central polarization effect on resources, labor,agricultural products, etc. Demographic changes and economic growth are playing an increasingly important role. With the continuous economy and societydevelopment, the influence of population and economic factors on the evolution ofsettlements will be increasingly strengthened. In addition, although the spatialdistribution of oasis and rural settlements in Kashgar city circle shows adaptabilityto the natural environment, such as gentle slope orientation and water systemorientation, the influence of natural environmental factors has declined.In addition, the development of urbanization has an important influence on theevolution direction and speed of the rural settlements, thereby affecting theevolution characteristics of its scale and shape. Settlement history and culture,residents' living habits and religious beliefs play an important role in settlementform and spatial layout. The aid to Xinjiang, poverty alleviation and employment,land remediation and the construction of new countryside have an important impacton the development of new settlements.(3) Rural settlement types and reconstruction paths. Various types of ruralsettlements have their own spatial characteristics and dominant influencing factors.In the future development, we should follow the concept of reconstruction of ruralsettlements in the context of landscape reconstruction, structural reorganization andfunctional remodeling, so as to achieve rapid development of rural economy, thelivable rural living environment, and the healthy and sustainable development ofrural settlements. For the rural settlements in Kashgar City Circle with poor naturalenvironment, low level of economic development, unsound social organizationsystem, and insufficient motivation for rural development, the focus ofreconstruction is to construct a settlement system through spatial organization,industrial cultivation, and social security.
Subject Area人文地理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/15388
Collection中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
研究系统
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
林金萍. 喀什城市圈乡村聚落时空演变及重构路径[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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