Alternative TitleResearch on the classification and space partitioning management of Chinese National Park
Thesis Advisor杨兆萍
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword分类分区 保护对象 管理目标 引力模型 指标体系 中国国家公园 classification and space partitioning protected objects management objectives Gravitational model Indicator system China National Park
Abstract国家公园是我国自然生态系统中最重要、自然景观最独特、自然遗产最精华、生物多样性最富集的自然保护地,具有全球价值、国家象征,国民认同度高,对于保护具有国家代表性的自然生态系统,实现自然资源科学保护和合理利用具有重要意义。分类分区管理是国家公园实现可持续发展的重要途径。然而,我国目前尚未建立国家公园分类管理理论, 分区也多是针对所有国家公园,忽略了不同类型国家公园保护对象、管理目标之间的差异,导致了分区政策与实际脱离,难以克服现实中保护和管理的模糊性。随着国家公园建设进一步推进, 研究制定适合我国国情且便于操作的国家公园分类分区管理理论,成为我国国家公园发展亟需解决的关键问题。本研究试图运用文献分析法、 对比研究法、 多学科融贯等多种方法, 通过对 IUCN(世界自然保护联盟)、国外国家公园、我国自然保护地分类分区理论的探索研究,构建适用于我国的国家公园分类管理理论,完善我国国家公园分区管理理论,一定程度上弥补我国国家公园研究不足,为潜在国家公园分类分区管理提供科学依据和实践指导。本文主要内容和结论如下:第一,结合 IUCN 保护区分类系统、世界自然遗产分类系统、国内外国家公园及自然保护地分类现状及分类标准研究,提出以保护目标为分类依据将国家公园划分为自然生态系统保护类、物种和栖息地保护类、自然遗迹保护类、自然景观保护类、综合保护类五类, 进行针对性分类管理。第二, 通过对国家公园分区管理现状研究,提出管控-功能二级分区模式。在此基础上,首先按管控将国家公园分为核心保护区、一般控制区;其次,针对各类型国家公园保护对象、管理目标差异,按功能分区将自然生态系统保护类国家公园划分为核心保育区、生态修复区、科普游憩区、传统利用区; 将物种和栖息地保护类国家公园划分为核心保护区、季节性核心区、恢复扩散区、生态廊道、科普游憩区、传统利用区;将自然遗迹保护类国家公园划分为严格保护区、科普教育区、游憩展示区、传统利用区;将自然景观保护类国家公园划分为核心生态区、核心景观区、一般游憩区、传统利用区;将综合保护类国家公园划分为严格保护区、生态保育区、生态廊道、科普游憩区、传统利用区,进行分区管理。第三, 针对各类型国家公园差异化管理目标,提出差异化分区管理指标体系。考虑生态系统功能、生态敏感性,人为干扰等因素,构建了自然生态系统保护类国家公园分区管理指标体系;考虑物种潜在栖息地、生态敏感性,人为干扰等因素选取要素指标等因素,构建了物种和栖息地保护类国家公园分区管理指标体系;考虑自然遗迹保护类国家公园的自然属性、价值属性、生态敏感性,人为干扰等因素,构建了该类型国家公园的分区管理指标体系;考虑景观的观赏价值、生态敏感性,人为干扰等因素,构建了自然景观保护类国家公园分区管理指标体系;综合考虑以上一种或多种因素,构建综合保护类国家公园分区管理指标体系。
Other AbstractAs a nature reserve with the highest ecological value and the greatest conservationintensity, the National Park is of great significance for maintaining the stability ofnatural ecosystem, protecting biodiversity and its ecological structure and process, andpreserving the natural landscape of the essence. The classified and district managementis an important way for national parks to achieve sustainable development. However,China has not established a theoretical system for the classification of national parks,and the zoning management is mostly aimed at all national parks, ignoring thedifferences among the management objectives of different types of national parks,resulting in the separation of the zoning from the reality. With the further developmentof National Park, it is a key problem for the development of China's national parks tostudy and formulate a classification and zoning system suitable for China's nationalconditions. This study attempts to use literature analysis, Comparative Research, multidisciplinary integration and other methods, and explore the IUCN, Foreign NationalParks, China's nature reserves classification system, to construct the national parkCategories system suitable for China, to perfect the theory of National Park Division,to make up for the lack of national park research in China, and to provide scientificbasis and practical guidance for the management of potential National Park Division.Contents of the paper are as follow:First, based on studying the Categories criteria of IUCN protected areas, WorldNatural Remains, national parks and nature reserves at home and abroad, theclassification of national parks according to the protected objects is proposed, thenational parks are classified into five categories: natural ecosystem protection, speciesand habitat protection, natural remains protection, natural landscape protection andcomprehensive protection. In addition, the gravity model is used to classify nationalparks.Second, based on the research of the related policy of National Park Division, themanagement-function two-level division model is put forward. On this basis, first, thenational parks are divided into core protected areas and general controlled areasaccording to the management. And second, based on the differences of managementobjectives of different types of national parks, the national parks are divided accordingto the dominant function: the national parks of natural ecosystem protection are dividedinto core conservation area, ecological restoration area, popular science recreation area and traditional utilization area; the national parks of species and habitat protection aredivided into core protection area, seasonal core area, restoration and diffusion area,ecological corridor, popular science recreation area and traditional utilization area; thenational parks of natural remains protection are divided into strict protection area,popular science education area, recreation display area and traditional utilization area;the National Parks of natural landscape protection are divided into core ecological areaand core landscape Viewing area, general recreation area and traditional utilization area;the comprehensive protection national park is divided into strict protection area,ecological conservation area, ecological corridor, popular science recreation area andtraditional utilization area.Third, according to the different management objectives of different types ofnational parks, the paper puts forward a differentiated index system of the zoning. Thezoning index system of national parks for natural ecosystem protection is composed ofecosystem function, ecological sensitivity and human disturbance; the zoning indexsystem of national parks for species and habitat protection is composed of potentialhabitat, ecological sensitivity and human interference factors; the zoning index systemof national parks for natural remains protection is composed of natural attribute, valueattribute, ecological sensitivity and human interference factors; the zoning index systemof national parks for natural landscape protection is composed of the ornamental value,ecological sensitivity and human interference factors of the landscape; the zoning indexsystem of national parks for comprehensive protection is constructed bycomprehensively considering one or more of the above factors Department.
Subject Area人文地理学
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郭姣姣. 中国国家公园分类分区管理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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