EGI OpenIR
短命植物尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌植株种子生物学特征研究
Alternative TitleA study on the Seed biological characteristics of the spring and autumn-germinated plants of ephemeral plant Erodium oxyrrhynchum
李得新
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张道远
2020-06-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword古尔班通古特沙漠 尖喙牻牛儿苗 降水 短命植物 春萌和秋萌 Gurbantunggut desert Erodium oxyrrhynchum Precipitation Ephemeral plants Spring and antumn germinated plant
Abstract古尔班通古特沙漠是我国面积最大的固定与半固定沙漠, 该区域广泛存在着短命植物, 它能利用有限的降水来完成自己的生活史。 尖喙牻牛儿苗(Erodiumoxyrrhynchum M. Bieb)是短命植物中的优势物种, 其植被更新成功的关键在于种子能顺利出土萌发。 这一过程受到许多因素的影响, 种子自身休眠、 温度和土壤水分为主要影响因素。 本研究自 2018 年 10 月至 2020 年 4 月, 以中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所(干旱区生物地理与生物资源实验室) 为实验平台, 以古尔班通古特沙漠短命植物尖喙牻牛儿苗的春萌和秋萌植株的种子为研究对象。 通过室内模拟与野外降水、 沙埋的控制实验相结合, 系统研究了在不同散布时间下尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌植株种子的百粒重、 吸水率、 不同实验处理下的萌发率; 探究了不同温度条件和野外沙埋对尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌植株种子萌发的影响; 解析了降水对尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌植株种子萌发的影响, 研究结果将更加全面的揭示尖喙牻牛儿苗在干旱区气候变化下的生态适应策略。 主要研究结果如下:(1) 新收获的不同散布时间内的尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌植株种子百粒重,吸水率和萌发相关实验表明, 秋萌植株种子散布时间比春萌植株种子早一周左右且两者种子在不同散布时间下的百粒重存在显著性差异。 春萌和秋萌植株种子在三个散布时间下均存在休眠现象, 并且秋萌休眠程度存在显著差异而春萌无差异。 尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌植株种子休眠类型均为物理休眠, 未划破种皮前, 种子的萌发率均小于 20%, 而划破种皮后, 萌发率均超过 90%, 光照对于春萌和秋萌植株种子萌发影响不显著。(2) 温度和沙埋对尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌植株种子萌发的结果显示: 尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌植株的种子的温度范围较为广泛, 一定程度上与古尔班通古特沙漠春季和秋季的温度相对应。 尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌植株的种子的最适温度为25/10℃, 在此温度下能获得最高的萌发率和萌发速率。 尖喙牻牛儿苗土壤种子库中的种子在不同月份间会有休眠和不休眠循环, 这有利于调节种子萌发和幼苗建成,确保植物在不同的月份间的水热条件变化中找到合适时机完成建苗。(3) 不同降水条件下尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌种子萌发试验结果显示: 随着降水逐渐增加, 尖喙牻牛儿苗种子春萌和秋萌种子的萌发率先增高后降低且各降水处理萌发率均很低(小于 8%) 。 在尖喙牻牛儿苗种子扩散后的当年秋季和第二年春季, 种子的萌发率均很低(小于 10%) , 表明大部分种子形成持久种子库。 隔雨和非隔雨对尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌种子萌发率无显著影响。
Other AbstractThe Gurbantunggut Desert is the largest fixed and semi-fixed desert in China.There are widespread ephemeral plants in this area. It can use limited rainfall tocomplete its life history. Erodium oxyrrhynchum M. Bieb is the dominant species inephemeral plants. The key to the success of its vegetation renewal lies in the smoothemergence of seeds. This process is affected by many factors, such as seed dormancy,temperature and soil moisture.These are the main factors. In this study, from October2018 to April 2020, the Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography (Arid AreaBiogeography and Bioresources Laboratory) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences wasused as the experimental platform, and the ephemeral Erodium oxyrrhynchum springand antumn germinated plant seeds of the Gurbantonggut desert was used. Thecombination of indoor simulation and field precipitation and sand burial controlexperiments, the 100-grain weight, water absorption rate, and germination of Erodiumoxyrrhynchum spring and antumn germinated plant seeds under different spreadingtimes were systematically studied; The effect of different temperature conditions andfield sand burial on the seed germination of spring and autumn sprouts of Erodiumoxyrrhynchum M. Bieb were studied; The effect of precipitation on the seedgermination of Erodium oxyrrhynchum spring and antumn germinated plant werestudied. Comprehensively reveal the coping strategies of Erodium oxyrrhynchum M.Bieb under the climate change in arid regions. The main findings are as follows:(1) The 100-grain weights of spring-sprouted and autumn- germinated plants inthe newly harvested seedlings at different spreading times, water absorption rate andgermination related experiments showed that the seeds of the autumn- germinatedplants were scattered about a week earlier than the seeds of the spring-germinatedplants There is a significant difference in the 100-grain weights of seeds at differentspreading times. The seeds of the spring and autumn sprouts were dormant at threespreading times, and there was a significant difference in the dormancy levels between autumn and spring sprouts, but no difference between spring and springsprouts. The seed dormancy types of the spring and autumn sprouts of Erodiumoxyrrhynchum M. Bieb seedlings are physical dormancy. Before the seed coat is cut,the seed germination rate is less than 20%, and after the seed coat is cut, thegermination rate is more than 90% Light has no significant effect on seed germinationof spring and autumn plants.(2) The results of temperature and sand burial on the seed germination of springand autumn sprout plants of Erodium oxyrrhynchum M. Bieb seedlings show that thetemperature range of the seeds of the spring and autumn sprout plants of Erodiumoxyrrhynchum M. Bieb is relatively wide, to a certain extent The temperature in theGurbantunggut Desert corresponds to spring and antumn germinated phenomenon.The optimum temperature of the seeds of the spring and autumn sprouts of Erodiumoxyrrhynchum M. Bieb cow seedlings is 25/10 ℃ , at which temperature the highestgermination rate and germination rate can be obtained. The seeds in the soil seed bankof the Erodium oxyrrhynchum M. Bieb will have dormant and non-dormant cyclesbetween different months, which is helpful to regulate seed germination and seedlingestablishment, and ensure that the plant finds the right time in the changes of waterand heat conditions between different months and complete seedling building.(3) Under different precipitation conditions, the germination test results ofspring and autumn seed germination test showed that: with the gradual increase ofprecipitation, the germination rate of spring germination and autumn seed germinationrate increased first and then decreased, and each precipitation treatment Thegermination rate is very low (less than 8%). The seed germination rate was very low(less than 10%) in the autumn of the current year and the spring of the second yearafter the seed spreading, indicating that most of the seeds form a durable seed bank.Autumn precipitation and winter snowfall had no effect on the germination rate ofspring and autumn sprout plants of Erodium oxyrrhynchum M. Bieb.
Subject Area植物学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/15430
Collection中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
研究系统
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李得新. 短命植物尖喙牻牛儿苗春萌和秋萌植株种子生物学特征研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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