EGI OpenIR
基于遥感蒸散发反演的努库斯灌区水量平衡动态解析
Alternative TitleWater balance analysis based on quantitative evapotranspiration (ET) inversion in NUKUS irrigation area, Lower Armu River Basin
刘志斌
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor刘铁
2020-06-30
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword咸海 努库斯灌区 蒸散发 SEBAL 水量平衡 The Aral Sea Nukus irrigation area evapotranspiration SEBAL water balance
Abstract咸海危机已演变为二十世纪最严重的生态环境问题之一,成为全球热点。 咸海的快速萎缩对周边生态环境、人们的生活生产造成不可逆转的恶劣影响,如土壤盐渍化、荒漠化、 盐尘暴等。已有研究表明,人类活动是咸海危机主要的诱因,咸海流域的人类活动主要表现为大规模开垦荒地、修筑水利设施、不合理灌溉等,致使咸海流域的农业生产过度利用、浪费地表水资源,从而加剧了咸海流域灌区农业生产需水与湖区入流量之间的矛盾。然而,咸海流域灌区水文过程以及对咸海水量的影响至今尚不明确,并且蒸散发作为水文过程中重要的一环,现有咸海流域的蒸散产品存在一定的局限性。因此,本研究选用阿姆河尾闾灌区-努库斯灌区为研究区,基于多期 Landsat 遥感影像和气象站数据,利用改进的 SEBAL模型反演了近 30 年来努库斯灌区蒸散发,并结合气象水文数据、 地表径流量数据、地下水变化数据等建立水量平衡公式,定量探究努库斯灌区水文过程以及对咸海水量的影响。该研究可为咸海流域的农业生产、咸海生态保护提供一定建设性意见。主要研究结果如下:(1) 对 SEBAL 模型作如下改进: 利用高程、坡度改进了地表温度、 光谱反射率的算法;引入了不同地物类型的参数的经验公式,如比辐射率等; 建立了‘冷热点’的选择规则。结果表明改进 SEBAL 模型的模拟结果与 Penman-Monteith 公式计算的蒸散发在日尺度与月尺度均有较高的拟合度,各作物的验证系数 R2 均高于 0.6,并且与蒸发皿实测数据的相关系数达到 0.82, 表明改进的 SEBAL 模型能较好的模拟中亚干旱区咸海流域典型灌区的蒸散发。(2) 努库斯灌区的蒸散发在空间上呈现南高北低的分布规律,这主要是和植被覆盖度有关;在年内分布规律呈现单峰分布,七月份为峰值;在近 30 年年际间中, 经历两个主要变化阶段,第一阶段是 1992 年至 200 年,年蒸散发量呈现减少趋势,第二阶段是 2005 年至 2015 年,年蒸散发量呈现增加趋势,其变化原因主要是由耕地面积变化导致的。并且近 30 年来了,努库斯灌区北部湖泊等湿地周围的蒸散发量呈现减少的趋势,这与灌区水体面积减少有关,而东南部、西南部灌区的蒸散发呈现增加的趋势,这是耕地扩张的结果。(3)努库斯灌区的耕地、林地的日蒸散发量在 5mm~8mm 之间,裸地的日蒸散量在 0mm~4.5mm 之间。生长季期间,水体的总蒸散发量在 1100mm~1500mm之间,耕地的总蒸散发量在 700mm~1100mm 之间, 灌区的水体蒸发量近 30 年来呈现减少的趋势,由 1992 年 1340mm 减少至 2015 年 1123mm, 而耕地、草地、灌丛的蒸散发量呈现先减少后增加的趋势,耕地平均每年蒸散发量为 900mm,而草地、灌丛的年均蒸散发量为 700mm,裸地的蒸发量无太大变动,维持在每年 450mm 左右。(4) 努库斯灌区地表径流量存在明显的干湿季之分,致使灌区的地下水位随着地表径流量出现波动, 地表径流量主要分为三个阶段: 2002 年~2005 年为来水丰年, 2006 年~2009 年为来水枯年, 2010 年~2015 年为来水较多年。同时利用 2000 年、 2005 年、 2010 年、 2012 年对应时间段的地表径流量数据、地下水变化数据、年降水量数据、蒸散发数据,构建了典型年份的努库斯灌区的生长季水量平衡公式,计算了各月、 生长季之间努库斯灌区地下水对南咸海水量的补给量。发现近 20 年来,努库斯灌区地下水对咸海的补给量正逐步减少, 2000 年、2005 年、 2010 年的补给量为 67.42、 15.62、 8.43 亿立方米。(5) 利用滞后相关分析发现努库斯灌区的地下水位同南咸海面积存在明显的正相关关系,相关系数为 0.44, 存在一个显著的两年滞后周期,说明努库斯灌区的地下水量影响着咸海面积的变化, 并且其地下水的补给作用存在一个两年的滞后。
Other AbstractThe Aral Sea crisis has become a global ecological and social problem, and it isalso one of the research hotspots. The rapid shrinking of the Aral Sea has causedirreversible adverse effects on the surrounding ecological environment and people’sliving and production, such as soil salinization, desertification, salt dust storm.Existing research shown that human activity was the main reason for the Aral Seacrisis, human activities mainly included the large-scale land reclamation, buildingwater conservancy facilities, irrigation by flooding. As a result, the agriculturalproduction in the Aral Sea basin overused and wasted surface water resources, whichaggravated the contradiction between the agricultural irrigation water demand and theAral Sea inflow. However, the specific hydrological process of irrigation area in theAral Sea basin and its impacts on the Aral Sea water volume are still unclear, andevapotranspiration, as an important part in the hydrological process, has certaindeviations in the existing evapotranspiration products in the Aral Sea basin. Therefore,this study selects the Amu Darya rump irrigation area–Nukus irrigation area as theresearch area, based on multiphase Landsat remote sensing images and weatherstation data, using improved SEBAL model to invert the evapotranspiration for nearly30 years in Nukus irrigation area, combined with surface inflow, groundwater changedata, precipitation to establish the formula of water balance, the purpose is toquantitatively explore the hydrological process of typical irrigated areas in Aral Seabasin and its influence on the Aral Sea water volume.This study can provide some constructive suggestions for the agriculturalproduction and the ecological protection of the Aral Sea. The main research results areas follows:(1) Using the elevation, slope, different empirical formula of parameters, and the‘cold and hot’ pixel selection rules to improve the SEBAL model. It found that theimproved SEBAL model simulation results have higher fitting with the Penman-Monteith formula calculation results, the validation coefficient-R square ofall crops was higher than 0.6, and the correlation coefficient between SEBALmodeled evapotranspiration with the measured data of the evaporation pan reached0.82, which indicated that the improved SEBAL model could better simulate theevapotranspiration of typical irrigation areas in Aral Sea basin.(2) Spatial distribution of evapotranspiration in Nukus irrigation area was high insouth and low in north, which was mainly related to vegetation coverage.Evapotranspiration showed a unimodal distribution pattern during the year and Julywas the peak. During the past 30 years, evapotranspiration had gone through twomajor stages, the first stage was from 1992 to 200 years, with the annualevapotranspiration decreased, the second stage was from 2005 to 2015, with theannual evapotranspiration increased, the reason for it was mainly caused by thechange of cultivated land area. Moreover, in the past 30 years, the evapotranspirationaround the lakes and other wetlands in the north of the Nukus irrigation area hadshown a trend of decreasing, which was related to the decreased of water body area,while the evapotranspiration in the southeast and southwest irrigation areas hadshown a trend of increasing, which was the result of the expansion of farmland.(3) Combined with the ESA land use data, it was found that the dailyevapotranspiration of cultivated land in Nukus irrigation area ranged from 5mm to8mm, and that of bare land ranged from 0mm to 4.5mm. During the growing season,the total evapotranspiration of water was between 1100mm~1500mm, and that ofcultivated land was between 700mm~1100mm. The water evaporation for nearly 30years shown the tendency of decrease, it was reduced from 1340mm in 1992 to1123mm in 2015, the amount of cultivated land, grassland, scrub evapotranspirationpresented increasing trend after reduction first. The average annual evapotranspirationof cultivated land was 900 mm, grassland and scrub was 700 mm, the bare land wasaround 450 mm.(4) The surface inflow in the Nukus irrigation area was obviously divided into dryand wet seasons, resulting in the fluctuation of the groundwater level. The surfaceinflow was mainly divided into three stages: from 2002 to 2005, the inflow was abundant, from 2006 to 2009, the inflow was low, and from 2010 to 2015, the inflowincreased. At the same time, the surface inflow data, groundwater change data, annualprecipitation data and evapotranspiration data of corresponding time periods in 2000,2005, 2010 and 2012 were used to construct the water balance formula of the growingseason in Nukus irrigation area, and the groundwater supply amount to the south AralSea was calculated. It is found that in the past 20 years, the supply of groundwater toAral Sea in Nukus irrigation area was decreasing gradually, the supplies in 2000, 2005and 2010 were 67.42, 15.62 and 843 million cubic meters.(5) Based on the hysteresis correlation analysis, it is found that the groundwaterlevel in Nukus irrigation area has a significant positive correlation with the change ofAral Sea area, with a correlation coefficient of 0.44 and a hysteresis period of twoyears, which indicated that the groundwater quantity in Nukus irrigation area affectsthe water volume of the Aral Sea, and there is a two-year lag in groundwater recharge.
Subject Area地图学与地理信息系统
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xjlas.org/handle/365004/15457
Collection中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
研究系统
Affiliation中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
刘志斌. 基于遥感蒸散发反演的努库斯灌区水量平衡动态解析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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