Alternative TitleStudy on the management system and mechanism of China's National Parks
Thesis Advisor杨兆萍
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword国家公园 管理体制 法律体系 资金机制 经营机制 National Park Management system Legal system Capital mechanism Operation mechanism
Abstract国家公园因其注重严格保护与合理游憩的先进发展理念, 以及严谨清晰的科学的管理方式, 使得国家公园在世界范围内开始不断推广并取得良好效果, 成为自然生态资源保护的重要方式。 我国自然保护地体系多年来一直存在多头管理、空间重叠、 权属不清等多方面矛盾, 严重阻碍了资源的保护与利用。 国家公园的引入, 力求从体制上解决深层次的建设问题, 目前国家公园建设已进入试点阶段,管理体制与机制的研究亟待进一步深入细化。本文基于国外国家公园在管理体制、 法律体系、 资金机制、 经营机制等方面先进的建设经验, 结合目前中国国家公园试点建设的现状及存在问题, 提出适合中国国情的国家公园体制机制发展的对策及建议。 第一, 中国原自然保护地涉及主管部门多, 各主管部门之间权责交叉, 协调无方, 需借鉴中央集权型管理体制,建立统一的管理机构进行直接管理, 并设置多功能部门按照发展目标分工合作,共同保护国家公园生态资源环境。 第二, 鉴于原自然保护地体系在法律保障方面相关法律文件存在明显不足与漏洞, 应立足平衡保护与利用的原则, 建立《国家公园基本法》 作为指导性法律框架, 并完善多方面相关配套法规, 弥补国家公园体系在法律层面的空白。 第三, 资金是影响国家公园管理运行的重要因素, 为避免出现资金短缺、 来源不稳定、 使用不透明等问题, 应坚持财政投入为主, 不断拓宽资金来源渠道。 并构建等级差异化资金分配方式, 根据指标评估体系划分等级, 并设置各项资金分配系数, 保证资金的合理分配。 第四, 积极实施特许经营制度, 建立招标竞争机制, 完善招标流程, 引进有足够实力的经营企业; 并统一标准收取项目盈利的一定比例作为特许经营费用, 补充国家公园资金收入。本研究充分借鉴了国外国家公园成熟适用的管理经验, 为中国特色的国家公园体制机制研究提供了可参考对策建议, 力求完善国家公园体制建设、 提高资源保护效率、 加快自然保护地体系发展。
Other AbstractBecause of its advanced development concept of paying attention to strictprotection and reasonable recreation, as well as rigorous and clear scientificmanagement mode, the National Park has been promoted and achieved good resultsall over the world, becoming an important way of natural ecological resourceprotection. For many years, there have been many contradictions in China's naturereserve system, such as multi management, spatial overlapping, unclear ownership,which seriously hinder the protection and utilization of resources. The introduction ofNational Park is to solve the deep-seated construction problems from the system. Atpresent, the construction of National Park has entered the pilot stage, and the researchof management system and mechanism needs to be further detailed.Based on the advanced construction experience of foreign National Parks inmanagement system, legal system, capital mechanism and operation mechanism,combined with the current situation and existing problems of China's National Parkpilot construction, this paper puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions forthe development of National Park system and mechanism suitable for China's nationalconditions. First, there are many competent departments involved in the originalnature reserves in China, and the power and responsibility of each competentdepartment are overlapping. It is necessary to draw lessons from the centralizedmanagement system, establish a unified management organization for directmanagement, and set up multi-functional departments to work together according tothe development goals to protect the ecological resources and environment of theNational Park. Second, in view of the obvious deficiencies and loopholes in therelevant legal documents of the original natural reserve system in terms of legalprotection, we should establish the basic law of National Park as the guiding legalframework based on the principle of balancing protection and utilization, and improvethe relevant supporting laws and regulations in various aspects to fill the gap in the legal level of the National Park system. Third, capital is an important factor affectingthe management and operation of national parks. In order to avoid the problems ofcapital shortage, unstable sources, and opaque use, we should adhere to the principleof financial investment and constantly expand the sources of funds. Construct thelevel differentiated fund distribution mode, divide the levels according to the indexevaluation system, and set up various fund distribution coefficients to ensure thereasonable allocation of funds. Fourth, we should actively implement the franchisesystem, establish a competitive mechanism for bidding, improve the bidding process,and introduce management enterprises with sufficient strength. In addition, a certainproportion of the profits of the project will be charged as franchise fees in a unifiedstandard to supplement the capital income of the National Park.This study fully draws on the mature and applicable management experience offoreign National Parks, and provides reference countermeasures and suggestions forthe study of National Park system and mechanism with Chinese characteristics,striving to improve the construction of National Park system, improve the efficiencyof resource protection, and speed up the development of natural reserve system.
Subject Area人文地理学
Document Type学位论文
First Author Affilication中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵胡兰. 中国国家公园管理体制与机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学,2020.
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